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Flashcards in Sheep Deck (135)
1

Describe the 'ram effect'

Introduction of ram triggers brain to produce LH (2 forms: pulsing-> follicle growth; and surge-> ovulation). Basically it triggers cycling (as long as environmental conditions eg light are also correct)

2

Why should you encourage farmers to do PMs on sheep that died suddenly?

Could have died from something that is a risk to other animals

3

What should you ask when taking a history of a sheep that died suddenly?

Clinical signs of other sheep
Age
Season (ie parasites)
Proximity to lambing (ie metabolic disease)
Indoors or grazing
Changes in management? (Eg diet, transport)
Weather changes
Recent treatments
Vaccination history
Anthelmintic treatments
Recent gathering or handling?

4

Why should you look at a sheep/ flock before doing a clinical exam?

To look for neurological signs eg ataxia, head tilt

5

Give some causes of sudden death in neonatal lambs

Birth trauma eg rib fractures, dystocia
Starvation
Hypothermia
Clostridial disease (dysentry, tetanus)
Neonatal infections (meningitis, septicaemia, watery mouth)
Intestinal torsion
Predators

6

At what age should you blood sample lambs to test colostrum transfer?

2-7 days old

7

Give some causes of sudden death in growing lambs

Infections (clostridial disease, pasteurellosis)
Urolithiasis
Parasitic gastroenteritis
Fluke
Rumen acidosis
Plant poisoning

8

Give some causes of sudden death in adult sheep

Metabolic disease (eg hypocalcaemia)
Parasitic disease (eg fluke)
Plant poisoning
Infection
Clostridial disease

9

Give some common causes of plant poisoning in sheep

Yew
Acorn
Laurel
Rhododendron

10

Give some clinical signs of plant poisoning in sheep

Abdominal pain (strong indicator)
Neurological signs
Sudden death

11

How do you treat plant poisoning in sheep?

Supportive treatment
Rumenotomy to remove poison material

12

What is the causative agent of pneumonic pasteurellosis?

Mannheimia haemolytica (normal inhabitant of nasopharynx)

13

What are the 2 types of pasteurellosis in sheep?

Pneumonic and systemic

14

Give the clinical signs of pneumonic pasteurellosis in young and old lambs

Young lambs: severe septicaemia
Older lambs: pneumonia

15

What enhances pneumonic pasteurellosis in sheep?

Disease is associate with other factors eg stress, poor colostrum status

16

How do you treat pneumonic pasteurellosis?

Long active Oxytetracycline or amoxicillin

17

How do you control pneumonic pasteurellosis?

Vaccination from 3 weeks old, booster ewes before lambing to protect lambs aswell
(Heptavac P)

18

What is the causative agent of systemic pasteurellosis?

Biebersteinia trehalosi (normal inhabitant of URT)

19

What clinical sign is seen with systemic pasteurellosis?

Sudden death in 6-10 month old lambs

20

What is the treatment for systemic pasteurellosis?

Long acting Oxytetracycline
Vaccination

21

Why is diagnosis of clostridial diseases in sheep done at post mortem?

Mostly causes sudden death

22

Give some trigger factors of clostridial diseases in sheep

Changes in management
Injury/trauma/insult
Endoparasites
Poor hygiene

23

Which clostridium causes lamb dysentry?

Cl. perfringens B

24

Which clostridium causes pulpy kidney in sheep?
What age of sheep are affected?
What are the clinical signs?

Cl. perfringens D
Lambs aged 4-10 weeks old, or finishing lambs 6 months +
Sudden death, may see ataxia and/or opisthotonus

25

Which clostridium causes abomastitis in sheep?
What age of sheep are affected?
What are the clinical signs?

Cl. sordelli ('sore belly')
4-10 weeks old, creep fed (high levels of concentrates in feed)
Sudden death or bloat due to displaced, distended abomasum

26

Which clostridium causes blackleg in sheep?

Cl.chauvoei

27

Which clostridium causes botulism in sheep?

Cl.botulinum C

28

Which clostridium causes tetanus in sheep?

Cl.tetani

29

What causes lamb dysentery?

Cl.perfringens type B

30

How can you control clostridial disease in sheep?

Vaccinate ewes 4 weeks before lambing (also protects lamb), annual booster
Start lambs own vaccination course from 3 weeks old
Vaccine: Covexin 8 and 10 or Bravovoxin 10 or Heptavac P

31

Give some notifiable diseases of sheep

Anthrax
Bluetongue
Foot and Mouth
Scrapie

32

What causes Anthrax?

Bacillus anthracis

33

If a sheep had foot and mouth disease, where would you see blisters?

Tongue, teats, coronary band, dental pad

34

How is Bluetongue spread?

Culicoides imicola

35

Give some clinical signs of Bluetongue

Fever
Swelling of head and neck
Lameness
Mouth ulcers
Drooling
Skin haemorrhages
Respiratory problems
Tongue swelling (rare)

36

What are the 2 forms of scrapie?

Classical and atypical (rare)

37

Describe classical scrapie in sheep

Infectious neurological disease of sheep
Fatal, chronic, progressive TSE
Prion disease: prions accumulate in brain -> neuro dysfunction: excitable, nervous, depressed, aggressive, trembling, ataxia, high step ataxia, wide back legs, pruritus, wool loss due to scratching
2-5 years old

38

If you suspect scrapie who should you report it to?

AHVLA

39

How do you treat sheep scab?

Macrocyclic lactones or organophosphate dip

40

Give some problems caused by nutrition seen around lambing time

Metabolic disease:
-Pregnancy toxaemia or twin lamb disease
-Hypocalcaemia
-Hypomagnesaemia
Ewe:
-Mastitis
-Dystocia (over feeding)
Lamb Mortality/Morbidity:
-Low lamb birth weight
-Poor colostrum
-Poor milk production

41

Briefly describe pregnancy toxaemia in sheep

Lack of glucose availability due to consumption by foetus. Hypoglycaemia -> neurological signs
Hyperketonaemia

42

Why are molasses given to ewes carrying triplets?

They are very high in energy

43

What is 'milk fever'?
When does it occur in sheep and cows?

Hypocalcaemia
Sheep: before lambing
Cows: after calving

44

Where should you not inject magnesium into sheep?

Veins -> death

45

What is meant by 'flushing the ewe'?

Feeding the ewe so she is gaining weight about 2 weeks before tupping
Increasing the BCS by 0.5 will improve the number of eggs produced#

46

White muscle disease in lambs and calves is caused by a deficiency in what?

Selenium

47

How should a ewe's BCS change during mid-pregnancy?

Maintain BCS or decrease by 0.5 as this is when the placenta develops. Care: if underfed -> small placenta -> low birth weights

48

What are the aims of feeding a ewe in late pregnancy?

To support foetal growth
To support mammary tissue development and colostrum production
To maintain ewe health and prevent pregnancy toxemia (ketosis)
To ensure lambs are born strong, healthy and of proper birth weight

49

When should we start feeding ewes cake during pregnancy?

90 days to lambing

50

What major events happen in a ewe when there is 90 days to lambing?

Uterus is expanding -> rumen capacity decreases
70% of foetal growth occurs
Colostrum development begins

51

What should you measure in a ewe's blood 3 weeks before lambing?

BOHB (ketone bodies), albumin, urea

52

Give some problems with fat ewes

More prone to pregnancy toxemia
Fat ewes experience more dystocia
More likely to prolapse
Large fetuses can cause dystocia
Oversized lambs have a higher mortality
Fat is expensive to put on

53

When are lambs weaned?

12-16 weeks old

54

Give some clinical signs of pregnancy toxaemia in sheep

Separate from group
Inappetant
Apparent blindness
Tremors of face and ears
Can progress to recumbency
Dead foetuses
Death
BOHB >3mmol/L

55

What is a 'hybrid' feeding system for lactating cows and what are some problems with it?

TMR at barrier and extra cake in parlour
Risk of acidosis
Cow eats less at barrier (-> less long fibre)
Shouldn't be feeding in parlour (bad for rumen health- peaks of acidosis)

56

What is the 'Dolly Parton effect'?

Get peaks of acidity after milking seen when giving cake in the parlour: cake causes a drop in pH (temporary acidosis), then pH returms to normal

57

What do we want rumen pH to be?

Around 6.5

58

How can we monitor a cow's nutritional status?

BCS and observation (DMI, cudding, rumen fill, lying time)
Milk quality
Can sieve faeces to look for fibre
Biochemistry (metabolic profiles)

59

What condition score should a dry cow be?
What about during peak lactation?

Dry: 2.5 - 3
Peak lactation: 2 - 2.5

60

What score is used for rumen fill? What score is optimum?

Scored from 1-5. Should be 3-4

61

What are the 5 scores of faeces?

1= brick solid
2= like a horse
3= target
4= like pudding
5= diarrhoea

62

What % of cows should be cudding at any one time?

75-80% (if not sleeping or actively eating)

63

A low butterfat % in milk indicates what?

Lack of fibre in diet

64

The comfort quotient for cattle should be which value?

85%

65

Which biochemical tests would you carry out to assess nutritional status?

BHOB (betahydroxybuterates)-ketone body. Indicative of fat mobilisation.
NEFA-evidence of fat mobilisation (high levels=serious health problem)
Urea

66

How many cows would you test when doing biochemical tests to assess nutritional status?

At least 12 per group

67

What should you look at in a diet when assessing cow nutritional status?

Fodders in clamps (DM, smell, texture)
Diet as fed (smell, consistency, evidence of sorting, feed surface, feed barrier, should always be food in front of cows)

68

How can you predict DM of a fodder?

25%= can easily squeeze water out
30%= cannot squeeze water out

69

What maintenance should a cow get per day?

65-70 MJ/day

70

How much energy is required for a cow to produce 1L milk?

5MJ/litre

71

What allowance should you provide when calculating diets for cows in late pregnancy?

20-40MJ
20MJ for early dry period
40MJ for transition period

72

What should the fodder:concentrate ratio be for cows?

60:40 fodder:conc is best

73

If changing a cow's diet, what time period should you do it over?

3 weeks

74

What DMI should you aim for when feeding cows?

3-4%

75

How much energy do the following contain:
Good silage
Average silage
Maize silage
Big bale silage
Straw
Hay
Concentrates

Good silage: 11-11.5 MJ/Kg DM
Average silage: 10-10.5 MJ
Maize silage: 11-11.3 MJ
Big bale silage: 8-10 MJ
Straw: 6.5 MJ
Hay: 9 MJ
Concentrates: 12.5 MJ

76

How does maedi visna affect sheep?

Causes encephalitis ('visna') and chronic pneumonitis ('maedi')

77

How do you treat sheep scab?

2 ivermectin injections, 7 days apart)

78

What is the target % for lamb mortality from birth to sale?

8%

79

How much colostrum should a newborn lamb receive?

50ml/kg in first 6 hours of birth (200ml)
250ml/kg in first 24 hours (1 litre)

80

When can you test to see if a lamb has had sufficient colostrum?

Zinc sulphate turbidity blood test <7 days old

81

When do you wean a lamb?

4-6 weeks old, at 15kg

82

What is the normal rectal temp of a newborn lamb?

39-40oC

83

How long does brown fat last (in lambs)?

6 hours

84

How do you treat a lamb with hypothermia with a rectal temp of 37-39oC which can still suckle and hold its head up?

Dry it if wet
Feed warmed colostrum
Check ewe's milk/health
Return to ewe
Provide shelter
Supervise

85

How do you treat a lamb with hypothermia with a rectal temp of <37oC which is weak, depressed, arched back or recumbent?

Intra-peritoneal 20% glucose, 10ml/kg
Dry the lamb
Warm to 37oC
Give colostrum (50ml/kg)
Warm to 39oC
Return to ewe
Provide shelter and monitor

86

Which sized needle should you use when giving a lamb an intra-peritoneal glucose injection?

19G 1"

87

What causes watery mouth in lambs?

Lack of colostrum/delay in getting colostrum allows gram -ve bacteria into the SI (esp. E.coli)

88

Give some clinical signs of watery mouth

Profuse salivation, reluctance to suck, depressed, swollen abdomen (gut stasis), collapse, death (endotoxaemia)

89

How do you treat watery mouth?

Can be fatal
Oral fluids (50ml/kg q6 hrs)
NSAIDs eg flunixin
Broad-spectrum ABs eg amoxicillin/clavulonic acid

90

Give some causes of neonatal diarrhoea in lambs

Lamb dysentery (Cl. perfringens type B)
E.coli
Rotavirus
Cryptosporidia parvum
Salmonella (typhimurium or dublin)

91

What is the most common cause of joint ill?

Streptococcus dysgalactiae

92

Give some clinical signs of joint ill

Lame, heat, pain, swelling over joints
Reduced suckling, ill thrift
Neuro signs if spinal abscesses occur

93

How do you treat joint ill?

ABs (penicillin, amoxicillin) for at least 5 days
Poor prognosis unless caught early

94

Give some clinical signs of navel ill

Hunched back, poor body condition, poor suckling
Navel moist, swollen and painful
Swelling may continue to bladder or liver

95

How do you treat navel ill?

ABs
Poor prognosis

96

What would you suspect in a lamb that is weak, depressed, fitting, and has congestion of blood vessels around the eyes?

Meningitis

97

Give some clinical signs of Drunken Lamb Syndrome

Acute ataxia and incoordination -> recumbency
Death quickly follows within 24-48 hrs

98

How can you treat Drunken Lamb Syndrome?

50mmol sodium bicarbonate dissolved in tap water given orally to treat the metabolic acidosis
Amoxicillin

99

Give some clinical signs of lamb nephrosis syndrome
What age of lambs are affected?

2-12 weeks old
Lose condition, diarrhoea, increased thirst

100

How do you diagnose lamb nephrosis syndrome?

Raised urea and creatinine, metabolic acidosis, hyperkalaemia, decreased albumin globulin ratio

101

Can you treat lamb nephrosis syndrome?

No

102

Give the clinical signs of a patent urachus

Swollen umbilicus
Dribbling urine

103

Why does swayback occur in lambs?

Copper deficiency in ewes

104

What clinical signs would you see in a lamb with swayback?

HL weakness (problems with myelination of spinal cord)

105

Which age of lambs usually get coccidiosis?

4-8 weeks old

106

Give some clinical signs of coccidiosis in lambs

Severe haemorrhagic diarrhoea, tenesmus, fever, weight loss, death
Poor growth

107

Which Eimeria species cause coccidiosis in lambs?

E. crandalis, E. ovinoidalis

108

How do you diagnose coccidiosis?

Faecal samples, coccidial count

109

How do you treat coccidiosis?

House sick animals and separate
Oral fluids
Diclazuril or toltrazuril

110

How do lambs usually pick up Eimeria (coccidiosis)?

Shed by ewes and older lambs

111

Which worms contribute to PGE?

Nematodirosis
Teladorsagia
Haemonchus contortus
Trichostrongylus

112

How is cobalt used in the body?

Used to make vitamin B12 in the rumen
RBC development
Amino acid synthesis
Energy metabolism

113

Give some clinical signs of cobalt deficiency

Weight loss
Anaemia
Slow growth
Debility
Watery eye discharge

114

How do you diagnose cobalt deficiency?

Vitamin B12 levels in the blood and liver
Response to cobalt therapy

115

How do you treat cobalt deficiency?

Cobalt drenches/boluses/supplement
Vitamin B12 injections

116

Give some clinical signs of selenium deficiency

White Muscle Disease:
Ill-thrift in lambs
Weakness, collapse, lameness
Poor reproductive performance in ewes

117

Give some clinical signs of iodine deficiency

Death, weakness, illness in newborn lambs
Late abortions
Thyroid goitre in lambs

118

Give some clinical signs of copper poisoning

Intravascular haemolysis and jaundice, ataxia, head-pressing, HBuria, recumbency, death

119

How do you treat copper poisoning?

Sodium calcium EDTA
Supportive therapy

120

What causes pneumonic pasteurellosis?

Mannheimia haemolytica (present in the nasopharynx of healthy sheep)

121

Give some clinical signs of pneumonic pasteurellosis

Pyrexia, mucopurulent nasal discharge, cough, death

122

How do you treat pneumonic pasteurellosis

Oxytetracycline, amoxicillin for 5-7 days

123

Give some clinical signs of Mycoplasma pneumonia
Which kind of sheep is it commonly seen in?

Cough, slight nasal discharge
Housed sheep

124

When is lungworm seen?
Give some clinical signs

Dictyocaulus filaria (thin worm)
July-September in lambs at pasture
Coughing, dyspnoea

125

What is the target BCS for weaning in lowland sheep?

2.0-2.5

126

What is the target BCS for tupping in lowland sheep?

3.5

127

What is the target BCS for lambing in lowland sheep?

3.0

128

How do you treat pregnancy toxaemia in sheep?

Propylene glycol 50ml twice daily (max 2-3 days)
IV glucose: 50-100ml 40% dextrose; can repeat in a couple of hours)

129

Give some clinical signs of hypocalcaemia in sheep

Initial weakness and excitement -> recumbency
Dilated pupils, constipated, bloated, comatose, death

130

How do you treat hypocalcaemia in sheep?

Slow i.v 40-80ml 20% calcium borogluconate or 20-40ml 40% given very slowly, or SC 1ml/kg 20% calcium borogluconate (50-100ml)

131

When does hypomagnesaemia occur in sheep?

Post lambing, peak lactation
Lush grass or bare pastures

132

Give the clinical signs of hypomagnesaemia (staggers) in sheep

Rapid onset, neurological symptoms
Excitable, tremors, convulsions death
Found dead

133

How do you diagnose hypomagnesaemia (staggers) in sheep?

Blood sample: Mg <0.6mmol/L

134

How do you treat hypomagnesaemia (staggers) in sheep?

20ml-40ml 20% calcium i.v
50ml-80ml 25% Mg So4 s.c

135

Give some differential diagnoses for sick/recumbent ewes at lambing time

Hypocalcaemia
Pregnancy toxaemia
Hypomagnesaemia
Listeria
Mastitis
Metritis