Flashcards in Poultry Deck (136)
What is the heart rate of a chicken?
What is the resp rate of a chicken?
Where should you take blood from a chicken?
Also right jugular vein (bigger)
How do you take a faecal sample from a chicken?
Cloacal swab or dropping
What is the intermediate host of Histomonas meleagridis?
The eggs of which worms can be found in chicken faecal samples?
What about protozoal oocysts?
Where would you feel when doing a chicken clinical exam?
Pin bones-fat coverage
Scale of 1 to 5
What is the proper name for the preen gland?
Produces lipid secretion for feather maintenance
Which specialised glands do chickens have?
Uropygieal (preen) gland
Glands within outer auditory canal
Ventral glands of cloaca
Where is the brood patch located?
What happens to it during laying?
Caudal half of ventral apterium
Prior to laying, brood patch loses all/some feathers and is highly vascularised
What would you use to treat mites in poultry?
Give some internal parasites of poultry
What is the only licensed treatment for internal worm parasites?
Give in food/water for 7 days
What causes Blackhead in turkeys?
Give a classic clinical sign
Give a clinical sign of Trichomonosis in chickens
Cancker (yellow, in mouth due to damage to mouth cavity)
Give a clinical sign of Hexamitosis in turkeys
Give some digestive tract problems of poultry
Sour crop/crop mycosis
Bacterial infections eg E.coli, Campylobacter (spotty liver)
Viral infections eg rotavirus
Nutritional disorders eg fatty liver syndrome
What causes spotty liver in poultry?
Give some clinical signs of Chlamydiosis in poultry
Purulent ocular and nasal discharge, conjunctivitis, dull and depressed, no response to macrolides
Give 2 clinical signs of Aspergillus funigatus in poultry
Dyspnoea (gasping), reduced production
Where in the repro tract does an egg spend the longest amount of time?
Eggs with a fragile shell indicates a problem in which part of the repro tract?
What temperature should eggs be stored at?
When can candling of eggs be carried out?
Why is it carried out?
9-10 days after incubation
To determine the fertility of eggs
What is the body temperature of a chicken?
Which 2 ways can you use to sex chicks?
Feather appearance (males are more pointed)
Apex egg abnormalities are caused by what?
What causes a chicken to become egg-bound?
Lack of available calcium
What infection causes misshapen/weak eggs, watery whites, rough shells and cystic/atrophic oviducts?
Which virus causes viral arthritis in poultry?
Where are B and T cells produced in chickens?
B: bursa of fabricius
Which drug do you use to anaesthetise chickens?
Ketamine 10mg/kg for up to 1kg birds, 5mg/kg for up to 2kg birds
SC or IM
Why should you raise a chickens head when its being anaesthetised?
To prevent regurgitation of crop contents
Which analgesic drugs can you give to chickens?
How do you euthanise a chicken?
IV (wing, jugular)
IM (breast muscle)
Neck dislocation if under 3kg
Why shouldn't you keep chickens and ducks together?
Ducks are pretty resistant to AIV but can give it to chickens/turkeys
AIV= avian influenza virus
Where do you take blood from a duck?
Medial metatarsal vein
Give some neonatal problems affecting ducklings
Yolk sac infection/retention/rupture
Leg and wing deformities
Infections (E.coli, aspergillus fumigatus)
Describe angel wing in ducks
Excessive protein intake during rearing causes urates to be deposited in soft joints. Carpal area is last to ossify. Primary feather are last to be produced. The carpal joint deforms with the weight of the blood quills -> primaries point outwards.
How do you treat angel wing in ducks?
Reduce protein intake
Ricketts is caused by a deficiency in what?
Which 2 kinds of neoplasia do ducks suffer with?
Give some reasons for penile prolapse in birds
Significant cold weather
Excessive sexual stimulation
What anaesthesia would you give to poultry and waterfowl?
Ketamine (3mg/kg) with medetomidine (150ug/kg)
Reverse with atipamezole
Which analgesia can you give to poultry and waterfowl?
How do you euthanise poultry and waterfowl?
Neck dislocation if less than 3kg
Give some clinical signs of ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT) infection in chickens
Coughing, sneezing, reduced weight gain, poor FCR, reduced egg production
Airsacculitis, tracheitis, bronchopneumonia
What are the 2 strains of campylobacter that affect chickens?
Give some clinical signs of Clostridium enteritis infection in chickens
Depression, ruffled feathers, sudden death, increased mortality
Lesions: necrosis of intestinal mucosa, fibrinonecrotic enteritis forming a diphtheritic membrane
What causes avian encephalomyelitis in chickens?
Give some clinical signs in broilers and layers
Tremor of head, neck, legs, paralysis, cataract formation
Layers: drop in egg production
Dyschondroplasia affects which bones of chickens?
What is it influenced by?
Influenced by: genetic selection, feed (Ca:P ratios), acid:base balance in feed, mycotoxins
What causes infectious synovitis in chickens?
Peritonitis in chickens is mostly caused by what?
How is brachyspira diagonsed in chickens?
Appearance of faeces
Confirm with culture or PCR
Describe 'egg drop syndrome' in chickens
Shell quality may be affected (soft, rough or thin-shelled; loss of pigments)
Drop in egg production (5-50% decrease)
No specific lesions, likely atrophy of ovary/oviduct
How does reticuloendotheliosis affect turkeys?
Causes tumours and immunosuppression
How do you prevent and treat coccidiosis in turkeys?
Prevent/treat: coccidiostats eg diclazuril, monensin, lasalocid
Toltrazuril, sulphonamides, amprolium
Treatment: antibiotics eg amoxycillin, tetracyclines, tylosin
How do you control Blackhead in turkeys?
Control worms (Heterakis, intermediate host) with Flubendazole
No specific treatment against Histomonas
Give the clinical signs of turkey coronavirus
Severe depression with little/no mortality
Watery scour, 9-11 weeks
Describe astrovirus in turkeys
5-10 days old
Severe typhilitis (inflammation of caeca) -> high culling -> economic losses
Describe rotavirus in turkeys
2-3 weeks old
Enteritis, vent pecking
Secondary spironucleosis (protozoa)
How does ornithobacterium rhinotracheale affect turkeys?
Mild respiratory disease (more severe in chickens)
12-14 weeks old
Lameness due to joint infection
Turkey coryza is known by which other name?
Bordetellosis (Bordatella avium)
How would you recognise septicaemia in a bird?
Red colouration of body (engorged blood vessels)
Enlarged, red liver
How would you diagnose aspergillosis in birds?
Nodules in air sacs
Give some clinical signs of Spironucleosis and trichononiasis in game birds
Watery diarrhoea (often yellow and frothy), dehydration, weight loss, depression, lethargy, death
How do you treat Spironucleosis and Trichononiasis in game birds?
Antibiotics and electrolytes
How do you treat coccidiosis in birds?
What is the most pathogenic Eimeria spp in birds?
Where does it reside?
Give some clinical signs of coccidiosis in birds
Dropped wings, weight loss, lethargy, ruffle feathers, death
Give some clinical signs of enteritis/dysbacteriosis in game birds
What is the treatment?
Scour in growing poults -> dehydration
Tx: antibiotics, acidification of water system, competitive exclusion products, electrolytes
What are the 2 primary Mycoplasma species affecting breeders?
What are the clinical signs of mycoplasma infections in poultry?
Swelling of infraorbital sinuses, ocular and nasal discharges, breathing difficulties, weight loss, death, decreased egg production and hatchability/chick quality, lameness
What are the clinical signs of coronavirus in adult and young gamebirds?
Adults: sudden death, urates in kidneys, drop in egg production/hatchability
Young birds: swollen kidneys, deposition of urates in visceral organs
Give some clinical signs of Newcastle disease in gamebirds
Dullness, depression, diarrhoea, neurological signs, drop in egg production/quality
Describe duck virus hepatitis (DVH)
3 antigenically different viruses:
Type 1: Picornavirus; death within 1 hour, opisthotonus, 90% mortality
Type 2: Astrovirus
Type 3: Picornavirus; similar signs to type1 but mortality <30%
Adult birds are immune after 7 weeks old (affects birds 2 days to 3 weeks old)
Lesions: enlarged liver, petecchial/ecchymotic haemorrhages, fatty kidneys, septicaemic carcass
How do you control duck virus hepatitis?
Breeders: live and inactivated vaccines
Ducklings: live vaccine
Describe duck viral enteritis (DVE)
Breeders more susceptible (younger birds have maternal antibodies to protect them)
Spread through water, oral and faecal routes
Virus can remain latent inside host and is expressed when bird is stressed
Give the clinical signs of duck virus enteritis
Ocular discharge, pasty eyelids
Diarrhoea with blood
Normally good BCS
Drop in egg production
What are the clinical signs of avian influenza?
Small increase in mortality
Drop in egg production
Decreased feed and water consumption
Why does aspergillosis cause gasping?
Fungus grows well in airsacs, prevents full expansion
Also causes blockage
Describe the difference between chickens and turkeys vs ducks regarding Newcastle disease
Chickens and turkeys: severe clinical signs
Ducks: relatively resistant, no clinical signs in younger birds
What are the clinical signs of Riemerella anatipestifer in ducks
Polyserositis (inflammation of serous membranes), exudates and fibrin covering visceral organs and cavity
Lymphoid necrosis of white pulp of spleen
Which Salmonella strains affect ducks?
S. indiana, S. kedougou
Give some clinical signs of Chlamydia infections in ducks
Conjunctivitis, anorexia, ruffled feathers
What is Derzy's disease?
Goose Viral Hepatitis (parvovirus)
What lesions are seen on PM with Derzy's disease (goose viral hepatitis)?
Fibrinous pseudomembrane on tongue and oral cavity, peri-hepatitis, lung oedema, catarrhal enteritis
What are the clinical signs of Derzy's disease (goose viral hepatitis)?
<7 days old: up to 100% mortality within 2-5 days, lethargy, nasal discharge, profuse white diarrhoea, growth retardation, ascites ('penguin-like standing')
2-4 weeks old: mortality up to 10%
Give some signs that indicate that a pigeon is healthy
Clear bright eyes
Movements are strong and vigorous
Skin, plumages, shanks and feet are clean
Actively feeding and drinking
Give some signs of an unhealthy pigeon
Evidence of not eating or drinking
Not laying eggs/eggs failing to hatch
Little or no preening/loss of bloom/ruffled feathers
Hunched up, huddled together, pale wattles, sunken eyes
Little or no activity, failure to exercise, tail bobbing, dropping wings
What is the body temp of a pigeon?
What is the resp rate of a pigeon?
What is the heart rate of a pigeon?
What are pigeons vaccinated against?
Name a louse species of pigeons
Columbicola columbae (slender pigeon louse)
How do you treat louse infestations in pigeons?
Permethin powders, sprays, carbaryl, ivermectin spot-ons
Give 4 mites that affect pigeons
Depluming itch mite (Knemidocoptes gallinae)
Red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae)
Northern Fowl mite (Ornithonyssus sylviarum)
Scaly leg mite (Knemidocoptes mutans)
Give some clinical signs of paramyxovirus in pigeons
Neurological signs: torticolis (head drooping on one side), unable to feed or fly, sudden death in chicks and newly weaned, feathering abnormalities, PU and PD
Some recover but with chronic PU
What causes canker in pigeons?
How is canker spread in pigeons?
Via crop milk
How do you treat canker in pigeons?
Carmidazole, rondidazole, dimetridazole (antiprotozoals)
Give some clinical signs of coccidial infection in pigeons
Fluffed up, weak, emaciated, drink a lot, green diarrhoea
Give some treatment for coccidial infections in pigeons
Clazuril, sulphonamides, toltrazuril, amprolium
When do pigeons lay eggs?
8-10 days post-pairing, another one after 2 days
Breed all year round
How long is the incubation period for pigeons?
How are pigeon chicks fed?
Fed crop milk for 1-4 days, followed by digested corn
When do pigeon chicks fledge?
24 days old
What is 'roach back'?
Kyphosis: convex, curved spine
Which Salmonella species affect chickens and ducks?
Chickens: S. typhimurium
Ducks: S. enteritidae
Name the only two notifiable diseases of chickens
Name the only notifiable disease of pigeons
How do you diagnose Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale in chickens?
How do you treat and prevent Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale in chickens?
ABs: amoxycillin, chlortetracycline, macrolides
Biosecurity and management improvements
How do you diagnose Clostridium enteritis in chickens?
Clinical signs, PM lesions, culture, PCR
How do you treat and prevent Clostridium enteritis in chickens?
Improve biosecurity and management
How do you diagnose avian encephalomyelitis in chickens?
How do you treat avian encephalomyelitis in chickens?
Prevent with vaccine
What causes Ricketts?
Give the clinical signs
Calcium/phosphorus or vitamin D deficiency
Bird is unable to support itself, increased skeletal deformities
How do you diagnose Brachyspira infections in poultry?
Culture and PCR
Appearance of faeces (pale brown)
How do you prevent and treat Brachyspira infections in poultry?
Organic acid programmes
Give some causes of lameness in commercial turkeys
Bacterial arthritis-Staphylococcus, E. coli, Erysipelas, Pasteurella
Long bone distortion
How does Bordatella avium affect turkeys?
URT infection, secondary infections eg E. coli
Dyspnoea, ocular and nasal discharge, swollen sinuses, coughing, sneezing
Where do you vaccinate turkeys?
What lesions would you see on PM of a duck with duck virus hepatitis (DVH)?
Enlarged liver, petecchial/ecchymotic haemorrhages, fatty kidneys, septicaemic carcasses
What lesions would you see on PM of a duck with duck virus enteritis (DVE)?
Multiple haemorrhages in tissues
Free blood in body cavity
Petechial haemorrhages on visceral organs
Haemorrhages on oesophageal mucosa
Necrotic foci on liver and oesophagus
What would you see on a PM of a duck with avian influenza?
Salpingitis (inflammation of fallopian tubes)
How does Newcastle disease affect ducks?
Ducks are relatively resistant
Major drop in egg production
No clinical signs in younger birds
What are the 4 major viruses that affect ducks?
Duck viral hepatitis
Duck viral enteritis
Give some clinical signs of Aspergillus fumigatus in ducks
Gasping, weight loss, anorexia, death
What kind of virus is Avian Influenza virus?
What kind of virus is Newcastle Disease virus?
Give some conditions that affect young (2-14 day old) commercial gamebird chicks
Yolk sac infection
Starve out (many causes inc. poor feed, chill-effect after hatching)
Aspergillosis (gasping, weight loss)
Rotavirus (depression, dropped wings, huddling, ruffled feathers)
Give some clinical signs of Rotavirus in young (2-14 day old) chicks
Depression, dropped wings, closed eyes, huddling, ruffled feathers, death
Give some clinical signs of spironucleosis and trichomoniasis in young poults
Watery diarrhoea (often yellow and frothy), dehydration, weight loss, depression, lethargy, death
How do you treat and prevent Eimeria?
Treatment: Toltrazuril (Baycox), Amprolium
Prevention: decrease stocking density, in-feed coccidiostat