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Flashcards in Poultry Deck (136)
1

What is the heart rate of a chicken?

120-160bpm

2

What is the resp rate of a chicken?

20-130brpm

3

Where should you take blood from a chicken?

Wing vein
Also right jugular vein (bigger)

4

How do you take a faecal sample from a chicken?

Cloacal swab or dropping

5

What is the intermediate host of Histomonas meleagridis?

Heterakis worm

6

The eggs of which worms can be found in chicken faecal samples?
What about protozoal oocysts?

Gizzard worm
Trichostrongyles
Heterakis
Gapeworm
Capillaria

Eimeria spp

7

Where would you feel when doing a chicken clinical exam?

Pin bones-fat coverage
Breast muscle-fitness
Scale of 1 to 5

8

What is the proper name for the preen gland?

Uropygieal gland
Produces lipid secretion for feather maintenance

9

Which specialised glands do chickens have?

Uropygieal (preen) gland
Glands within outer auditory canal
Ventral glands of cloaca

10

Where is the brood patch located?
What happens to it during laying?

Caudal half of ventral apterium
Prior to laying, brood patch loses all/some feathers and is highly vascularised
Hormone-controlled

11

What would you use to treat mites in poultry?

Ivermectin

12

Give some internal parasites of poultry

Capillaria
Heterakis
Ascarids
Trichostrongyles
Tapeworm
Gizzard worm
Gapeworm

13

What is the only licensed treatment for internal worm parasites?

Flubendazole
Give in food/water for 7 days

14

What causes Blackhead in turkeys?
Give a classic clinical sign

Histomonas meleagridis
Yellow diarrhoea

15

Give a clinical sign of Trichomonosis in chickens

Cancker (yellow, in mouth due to damage to mouth cavity)

16

Give a clinical sign of Hexamitosis in turkeys

Diarrhoea, unthriftiness
Protozoa

17

Give some digestive tract problems of poultry

Sour crop/crop mycosis
Impacted/pendulous crop
Impacted gizzard
Bacterial infections eg E.coli, Campylobacter (spotty liver)
Viral infections eg rotavirus
Nutritional diarrhoea
Nutritional disorders eg fatty liver syndrome

18

What causes spotty liver in poultry?

Campylobacter

19

Give some clinical signs of Chlamydiosis in poultry

Purulent ocular and nasal discharge, conjunctivitis, dull and depressed, no response to macrolides

20

Give 2 clinical signs of Aspergillus funigatus in poultry

Dyspnoea (gasping), reduced production

21

Where in the repro tract does an egg spend the longest amount of time?

Uterus

22

Eggs with a fragile shell indicates a problem in which part of the repro tract?

Uterus

23

What temperature should eggs be stored at?

10oC

24

When can candling of eggs be carried out?
Why is it carried out?

9-10 days after incubation
To determine the fertility of eggs

25

What is the body temperature of a chicken?

40-42oC

26

Which 2 ways can you use to sex chicks?

Vent appearance
Feather appearance (males are more pointed)

27

Apex egg abnormalities are caused by what?

Mycoplasma synovale

28

What causes a chicken to become egg-bound?

Lack of available calcium

29

What infection causes misshapen/weak eggs, watery whites, rough shells and cystic/atrophic oviducts?

IBV

30

Which virus causes viral arthritis in poultry?

Reovirus

31

Where are B and T cells produced in chickens?

B: bursa of fabricius
T: thymus

32

Which drug do you use to anaesthetise chickens?

Ketamine 10mg/kg for up to 1kg birds, 5mg/kg for up to 2kg birds
SC or IM
Isofluorane/sevofluorane

33

Why should you raise a chickens head when its being anaesthetised?

To prevent regurgitation of crop contents

34

Which analgesic drugs can you give to chickens?

Buprenorphine
Carprofen
Ketoprofen
Meloxicam

35

How do you euthanise a chicken?

Pentobarbitone
IV (wing, jugular)
IM (breast muscle)
Intracardiac

Neck dislocation if under 3kg

36

Why shouldn't you keep chickens and ducks together?

Ducks are pretty resistant to AIV but can give it to chickens/turkeys
AIV= avian influenza virus

37

Where do you take blood from a duck?

Medial metatarsal vein

38

Give some neonatal problems affecting ducklings

Starving
Yolk sac infection/retention/rupture
Chilling
Leg and wing deformities
Infections (E.coli, aspergillus fumigatus)

39

Describe angel wing in ducks

Excessive protein intake during rearing causes urates to be deposited in soft joints. Carpal area is last to ossify. Primary feather are last to be produced. The carpal joint deforms with the weight of the blood quills -> primaries point outwards.

40

How do you treat angel wing in ducks?

Reduce protein intake

41

Ricketts is caused by a deficiency in what?

Vitamin D

42

Which 2 kinds of neoplasia do ducks suffer with?

Osteosarcoma
Hepatic tumours

43

Give some reasons for penile prolapse in birds

Venereal disease
Trauma
Significant cold weather
Excessive sexual stimulation

44

What anaesthesia would you give to poultry and waterfowl?

Ketamine (3mg/kg) with medetomidine (150ug/kg)
Reverse with atipamezole

45

Which analgesia can you give to poultry and waterfowl?

Buprenorphine
Carprofen
Ketoprofen

46

How do you euthanise poultry and waterfowl?

IV pentobarbitone
Neck dislocation if less than 3kg

47

Give some clinical signs of ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT) infection in chickens

Coughing, sneezing, reduced weight gain, poor FCR, reduced egg production
Airsacculitis, tracheitis, bronchopneumonia

48

What are the 2 strains of campylobacter that affect chickens?

C.coli
C.jejuni

49

Give some clinical signs of Clostridium enteritis infection in chickens

Depression, ruffled feathers, sudden death, increased mortality
Lesions: necrosis of intestinal mucosa, fibrinonecrotic enteritis forming a diphtheritic membrane

50

What causes avian encephalomyelitis in chickens?
Give some clinical signs in broilers and layers

Picornavirus
Tremor of head, neck, legs, paralysis, cataract formation
Layers: drop in egg production

51

Dyschondroplasia affects which bones of chickens?
What is it influenced by?

Proximal tibiotarsus
Influenced by: genetic selection, feed (Ca:P ratios), acid:base balance in feed, mycotoxins

52

What causes infectious synovitis in chickens?

Mycoplasma

53

Peritonitis in chickens is mostly caused by what?

E.coli

54

How is brachyspira diagonsed in chickens?

Appearance of faeces
Confirm with culture or PCR

55

Describe 'egg drop syndrome' in chickens

Adenovirus
Shell quality may be affected (soft, rough or thin-shelled; loss of pigments)
Drop in egg production (5-50% decrease)
No specific lesions, likely atrophy of ovary/oviduct

56

How does reticuloendotheliosis affect turkeys?

Causes tumours and immunosuppression

57

How do you prevent and treat coccidiosis in turkeys?

Prevent/treat: coccidiostats eg diclazuril, monensin, lasalocid
Toltrazuril, sulphonamides, amprolium
Treatment: antibiotics eg amoxycillin, tetracyclines, tylosin

58

How do you control Blackhead in turkeys?

Control worms (Heterakis, intermediate host) with Flubendazole
No specific treatment against Histomonas

59

Give the clinical signs of turkey coronavirus

Severe depression with little/no mortality
High morbidity
Watery scour, 9-11 weeks
Some dullness

60

Describe astrovirus in turkeys

5-10 days old
Severe typhilitis (inflammation of caeca) -> high culling -> economic losses

61

Describe rotavirus in turkeys

2-3 weeks old
Enteritis, vent pecking
Secondary spironucleosis (protozoa)

62

How does ornithobacterium rhinotracheale affect turkeys?

Mild respiratory disease (more severe in chickens)
12-14 weeks old
Lameness due to joint infection

63

Turkey coryza is known by which other name?

Bordetellosis (Bordatella avium)

64

How would you recognise septicaemia in a bird?

Red colouration of body (engorged blood vessels)
Enlarged, red liver

65

How would you diagnose aspergillosis in birds?

Nodules in air sacs

66

Give some clinical signs of Spironucleosis and trichononiasis in game birds

Watery diarrhoea (often yellow and frothy), dehydration, weight loss, depression, lethargy, death

67

How do you treat Spironucleosis and Trichononiasis in game birds?

Antibiotics and electrolytes

68

How do you treat coccidiosis in birds?

Toltrazuril, Amprolium

69

What is the most pathogenic Eimeria spp in birds?
Where does it reside?

E.colchici
Caecum

70

Give some clinical signs of coccidiosis in birds

Dropped wings, weight loss, lethargy, ruffle feathers, death

71

Give some clinical signs of enteritis/dysbacteriosis in game birds
What is the treatment?

Scour in growing poults -> dehydration
Tx: antibiotics, acidification of water system, competitive exclusion products, electrolytes

72

What are the 2 primary Mycoplasma species affecting breeders?

Mycoplasma gallisepticum
Mycoplasma synoviae

73

What are the clinical signs of mycoplasma infections in poultry?

Swelling of infraorbital sinuses, ocular and nasal discharges, breathing difficulties, weight loss, death, decreased egg production and hatchability/chick quality, lameness

74

What are the clinical signs of coronavirus in adult and young gamebirds?

Adults: sudden death, urates in kidneys, drop in egg production/hatchability
Young birds: swollen kidneys, deposition of urates in visceral organs

75

Give some clinical signs of Newcastle disease in gamebirds

Dullness, depression, diarrhoea, neurological signs, drop in egg production/quality

76

Describe duck virus hepatitis (DVH)

3 antigenically different viruses:
Type 1: Picornavirus; death within 1 hour, opisthotonus, 90% mortality
Type 2: Astrovirus
Type 3: Picornavirus; similar signs to type1 but mortality <30%
Adult birds are immune after 7 weeks old (affects birds 2 days to 3 weeks old)
Lesions: enlarged liver, petecchial/ecchymotic haemorrhages, fatty kidneys, septicaemic carcass

77

How do you control duck virus hepatitis?

Breeders: live and inactivated vaccines
Ducklings: live vaccine

78

Describe duck viral enteritis (DVE)

Herpesvirus
Breeders more susceptible (younger birds have maternal antibodies to protect them)
Spread through water, oral and faecal routes
Virus can remain latent inside host and is expressed when bird is stressed

79

Give the clinical signs of duck virus enteritis

Ataxia
Ocular discharge, pasty eyelids
Nasal discharge
Diarrhoea with blood
Photophobia
Normally good BCS
Drop in egg production

80

What are the clinical signs of avian influenza?

Small increase in mortality
Drop in egg production
Decreased feed and water consumption
Little subdued

81

Why does aspergillosis cause gasping?

Fungus grows well in airsacs, prevents full expansion
Also causes blockage

82

Describe the difference between chickens and turkeys vs ducks regarding Newcastle disease

Chickens and turkeys: severe clinical signs
Ducks: relatively resistant, no clinical signs in younger birds

83

What are the clinical signs of Riemerella anatipestifer in ducks

Polyserositis (inflammation of serous membranes), exudates and fibrin covering visceral organs and cavity
Lymphoid necrosis of white pulp of spleen

84

Which Salmonella strains affect ducks?

S. indiana, S. kedougou

85

Give some clinical signs of Chlamydia infections in ducks

Conjunctivitis, anorexia, ruffled feathers

86

What is Derzy's disease?

Goose Viral Hepatitis (parvovirus)

87

What lesions are seen on PM with Derzy's disease (goose viral hepatitis)?

Fibrinous pseudomembrane on tongue and oral cavity, peri-hepatitis, lung oedema, catarrhal enteritis

88

What are the clinical signs of Derzy's disease (goose viral hepatitis)?

<7 days old: up to 100% mortality within 2-5 days, lethargy, nasal discharge, profuse white diarrhoea, growth retardation, ascites ('penguin-like standing')
2-4 weeks old: mortality up to 10%

89

Give some signs that indicate that a pigeon is healthy

Normal droppings
Alert
Good posture
Clear bright eyes
Movements are strong and vigorous
Skin, plumages, shanks and feet are clean
Actively feeding and drinking

90

Give some signs of an unhealthy pigeon

Abnormal/watery droppings
Evidence of not eating or drinking
Not laying eggs/eggs failing to hatch
Little or no preening/loss of bloom/ruffled feathers
Little/different noise
Hunched up, huddled together, pale wattles, sunken eyes
Little or no activity, failure to exercise, tail bobbing, dropping wings

91

What is the body temp of a pigeon?

39.8-43.4oC

92

What is the resp rate of a pigeon?

26brpm

93

What is the heart rate of a pigeon?

180-250 bpm

94

What are pigeons vaccinated against?

Paramyxovirus

95

Name a louse species of pigeons

Columbicola columbae (slender pigeon louse)

96

How do you treat louse infestations in pigeons?

Permethin powders, sprays, carbaryl, ivermectin spot-ons

97

Give 4 mites that affect pigeons

Depluming itch mite (Knemidocoptes gallinae)
Red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae)
Northern Fowl mite (Ornithonyssus sylviarum)
Scaly leg mite (Knemidocoptes mutans)

98

Give some clinical signs of paramyxovirus in pigeons

Neurological signs: torticolis (head drooping on one side), unable to feed or fly, sudden death in chicks and newly weaned, feathering abnormalities, PU and PD
Some recover but with chronic PU

99

What causes canker in pigeons?

Trichomonas (protozoa)

100

How is canker spread in pigeons?

Via crop milk

101

How do you treat canker in pigeons?

Carmidazole, rondidazole, dimetridazole (antiprotozoals)

102

Give some clinical signs of coccidial infection in pigeons

Fluffed up, weak, emaciated, drink a lot, green diarrhoea

103

Give some treatment for coccidial infections in pigeons

Clazuril, sulphonamides, toltrazuril, amprolium

104

When do pigeons lay eggs?

8-10 days post-pairing, another one after 2 days
Breed all year round

105

How long is the incubation period for pigeons?

17-19 days

106

How are pigeon chicks fed?

Fed crop milk for 1-4 days, followed by digested corn

107

When do pigeon chicks fledge?

24 days old

108

What is 'roach back'?

Kyphosis: convex, curved spine

109

Which Salmonella species affect chickens and ducks?

Chickens: S. typhimurium
Ducks: S. enteritidae

110

Name the only two notifiable diseases of chickens

Newcastle disease
Avian influenza

111

Name the only notifiable disease of pigeons

Pigeon paramyxovirus

112

How do you diagnose Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale in chickens?

Culture, PCR

113

How do you treat and prevent Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale in chickens?

ABs: amoxycillin, chlortetracycline, macrolides
Vaccine (autogenous)
Biosecurity and management improvements

114

How do you diagnose Clostridium enteritis in chickens?

Clinical signs, PM lesions, culture, PCR

115

How do you treat and prevent Clostridium enteritis in chickens?

Antibiotics
Improve biosecurity and management

116

How do you diagnose avian encephalomyelitis in chickens?

Histopathology, PCR

117

How do you treat avian encephalomyelitis in chickens?

No treatment
Prevent with vaccine

118

What causes Ricketts?
Give the clinical signs

Calcium/phosphorus or vitamin D deficiency
Rubbery bones
Bird is unable to support itself, increased skeletal deformities

119

How do you diagnose Brachyspira infections in poultry?

Culture and PCR
Appearance of faeces (pale brown)

120

How do you prevent and treat Brachyspira infections in poultry?

Organic acid programmes
Macrolides

121

Give some causes of lameness in commercial turkeys

Bacterial arthritis-Staphylococcus, E. coli, Erysipelas, Pasteurella
Long bone distortion
Osteomyelitis
Scoliosis

122

How does Bordatella avium affect turkeys?

URT infection, secondary infections eg E. coli
Dyspnoea, ocular and nasal discharge, swollen sinuses, coughing, sneezing

123

Where do you vaccinate turkeys?

Pectoral muscle

124

What lesions would you see on PM of a duck with duck virus hepatitis (DVH)?

Enlarged liver, petecchial/ecchymotic haemorrhages, fatty kidneys, septicaemic carcasses

125

What lesions would you see on PM of a duck with duck virus enteritis (DVE)?

Multiple haemorrhages in tissues
Free blood in body cavity
Petechial haemorrhages on visceral organs
Haemorrhages on oesophageal mucosa
Necrotic foci on liver and oesophagus

126

What would you see on a PM of a duck with avian influenza?

Aspergillosis
Salpingitis (inflammation of fallopian tubes)
Airsacculitis
Egg peritonitis

127

How does Newcastle disease affect ducks?

Ducks are relatively resistant
Major drop in egg production
No clinical signs in younger birds

128

What are the 4 major viruses that affect ducks?

Duck viral hepatitis
Duck viral enteritis
Newcastle disease
Avian influenza

129

Give some clinical signs of Aspergillus fumigatus in ducks

Gasping, weight loss, anorexia, death

130

What kind of virus is Avian Influenza virus?

Orthomyxovirus

131

What kind of virus is Newcastle Disease virus?

Paramyxovirus

132

Give some conditions that affect young (2-14 day old) commercial gamebird chicks

Yolk sac infection
Septicaemia
Starve out (many causes inc. poor feed, chill-effect after hatching)
Aspergillosis (gasping, weight loss)
Rotavirus (depression, dropped wings, huddling, ruffled feathers)

133

Give some clinical signs of Rotavirus in young (2-14 day old) chicks

Depression, dropped wings, closed eyes, huddling, ruffled feathers, death

134

Give some clinical signs of spironucleosis and trichomoniasis in young poults

Watery diarrhoea (often yellow and frothy), dehydration, weight loss, depression, lethargy, death

135

How do you treat and prevent Eimeria?

Treatment: Toltrazuril (Baycox), Amprolium
Prevention: decrease stocking density, in-feed coccidiostat

136

How do you treat and prevent Mycoplasma in breeders?

Prevention: vaccine
Treatment: antibiotics, macrolides, fluoroquinalones