Breast and Lymphatic System Flashcards Preview

HS Exam 2 > Breast and Lymphatic System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Breast and Lymphatic System Deck (57):
1

where is the breast in relation to the deep and superficial fascia

inside of superficial fascia, separated from deep fascia by retromammary space

2

where is the breast in relation to the retromammary space

anterior to it

3

why is venous drainage of the breast by posterior intercostal veins clinically significant in the case of cancer

the posterior intercostal drain into the azygous system which in in contact with the internal vertebral venous plexus around the spinal cord which creates a metastasis route to the brain

4

does the breast normally move when the patent contracts the pecs? when does it move?

does not move with pectoralis major contraction
moves if there is a tumor which creates adhesions between the breast and the pectoralis fascia

5

what is the mammary ridge and what forms it

aka milk line
runs from axilla to groin and then disappears everywhere except the breasts

6

lymph drains from the body via what ducts and where do they drain

right thoracic duct and the thoracic duct
both ducts return via the intersection of the jugular and subclavian veins

7

where is the breast

lateral sternal boarder to mid axillary line laterally
ribs 2-6 vertically

8

what is the most prominent area of the breast

nipple

9

where is the nipple

ICS 4- only in young women and children

10

what is the darker area around the nipple

aerola

11

what is in the aerola

sebaceous glands that secrete a lubricant that protects the nipple during breast feeding

12

what are the 3 components of the breast

glandular tissue
fibrous tissue
adipose

13

what is the purpose of glandular tissue

milk production

14

what is the purpose of fibrous tissue

support of the breast via suspensory ligaments of cooper

15

what happens with the presence of a carcinoma in the breast

tumor puts tension on the suspensory ligaments of cooper, causing dimpling of the skin

16

where is the fibrous tissue most developed

superiorly

17

what is the purpose of adipose

shape and contour of the breast

18

what muscles are posterior to the breast

2/3 over the pectoralis major
1/3 over serratus anterior

19

what is the axillary tail

extension in upper outer quadrant that extends toward the axilla

20

why is the axillary tail significant

swells during menstration

21

what is the retromammary space

potential space between the breast and pectoralis fascia
contains fat that allows for movement of the breast over the pectoralis major

22

what are the components of the mammary gland

lobules
lactiferous ducts
lactiferous sinuses
smooth muscle

23

what are lobules

where milk production occurs
15-20 per breast

24

what are lactiferous ducts

drainage routes from the lobules to the nipple

25

what are lactiferous sinuses

pouches in the lactiferous ducts that stores milk for the initial release when suckling begins

26

where is smooth muscle

around lactiferous ducts, contracts during nipple stimulation which produces erect nipples

27

what is the path of arterial supply to the breast

subclavian-->axillary-->thoracoacromial and lateral thoracic

28

what arteries originate medially to supply the breast

perforating branches from the internal thoracic artery
medial mammary branches of 2-4 perforating branches

29

what arteries originate laterally to supply the breast

lateral thoracic
pectoral branches of thoracoacromial trunk

30

what arteries originate posteriorly to supply the breast

posterior intercostal

31

what is the main venous drainage of the breast

axillary vein, but some to internal thoracic vein and posterior intercostal veins

32

what provides innervation to the breast

anteiror and lateral cutaneous branches of intercostal nerves 2-6

33

what information do the nerves that innervate the breast carry

sensory fibers to the skin
sympathetic fibers to smooth muscle over the skin and nipple as well as blood vessels

34

what is polymastia

extra breast- rare

35

what is polythelia

extra nipple- must be along milk line

36

what is gynecomastia

breast development in males

37

what causes gynecomastia

usually during puberty
also change in liver sex hormone metabolism, aging, and cancer treatments

38

what organs do not have lymph vessels/nodes

CNS
eyes
nails/teeth
bone and marrow

39

what is lymphogenesis

metastasis of cancer cells via lymphatics

40

what are the functions of the lymphatic system

drain interstitial fluid back to circulatory system
lacteals absorb and transfer fat to the venous system
defense mechanism against foreign substances (filtering and lymphocytes)

41

what is a lymphatic plexus

network of lymphatic capillaries in the intercellular spaces

42

what are lymphatics

network of vessels coming from the lymphatic plexuses

43

what are lymph nodes

enlargements along lymphatic vessels that filter

44

what are lymphocytes

immune cells

45

what are lymphoid organs

wall of alimentary canal
spleen
thymus
tonsils

46

what are the 4 rules of lymphatic drainage

drains opposite arterial supply, same as venous
filtered through at least 1 lymph node set before returning
travels from superficial nodes to deeper ones
node groups are named according to- position, region, organs, or blood vessels

47

path of lymphatic system

interstitial fluid-> lymphatic plexus-> afferent lymphatic vessel -> lymph node-> efferent lymphatic vessel->lymphatic trunk-> lymphatic ducts-> venous system

48

what are the lymphatic trunks and what do they drain

subclavian- upper limb
jugular- head/neck
brachiomediastinal- thoracic region

49

what are the lymphatic ducts and what do they drain

right thoracic duct- RUQ
thoracic duct- everything else

50

where do the lymphatic ducts drain

intersection of the jugular and subclavian veins

51

left lung drainage

lower lobe of left lung drains to the right side

52

what is the lateral lymphatic drainage path of the right breast

axillary nodes--> calvicular nodes-> right subclavian trunk->right lymphatic duct

53

what is the medial lymphatic drainage path of the right breast

parasternal nodes-> right bronchiomediastinal trunk-->right lymphatic duct

54

where does the inferior lymphatic drainage of the right breast go

abdominal nodes

55

what is lymphedema

swelling due to excess fluid caused by a blockage in the lymphatic system preventing drainage
usually in upper or lower limbs

56

what is lymphangitis

inflammation of lymph vessel due to injury or infection
vessels may appear as red streaks in the skin

57

what is lymphadenitis

inflammation of a lymph node due to injury or infection