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Flashcards in Endocrine Deck (82):
1

what is humoral control of secretion

blood substance levels (Ca, glucose, Na)

2

what does the hypothalamus control

pineal gland and renal medulla
regulates anterior pituitary

3

what hormones are produced by the hypothalamus

ADH
oxytocin

4

pars nervosa

posterior pituitary

5

supraoptic nucleus

neurons that make ADH in the hypothalamus

6

paraventricular nucleus

neurons that make oxytocin

7

pars distalis

anterior pituitary

8

posterior pituitary hormones

oxytocin
ADH

9

anterior pituitary hormones

TSH
ACTH
FSH/LH
GH
prolactin
endorphins

10

what hormones have inhibitory factors

GH
prolactin

11

where does the posterior pituitary come from

neuroectoderm- hypothalamus outgrowth

12

median eminance

extension of hypothalamus into the posterior pituitary

13

pituitary stalk

infundibulum

14

contents of pars nervosa

unmyelinated axons
herring bodies
pituicytes

15

herring bodies

dilated axon terminals with hormones in secretory vesicles

16

pituicytes

type of glial cell in posterior pituitary

17

diabetes insipidus

insufficient amounts of ADH resulting in large volumes of dilute urine

18

Rathke's pouch

pocket of oral ectoderm that the anterior pituitary comes from

19

neurohypophysis

posterior pituitary

20

adenohypophysis

anterior pituitary

21

pars tuberalis

extension of anterior pituitary next to the infundibular stalk

22

pars intermedias

adjacent to pars nervosa

23

epithelial cysts

remnants of Rathke's pouch in the pars intermedias

24

what does the pars intermediate release

melanocyte secreting hormone
some ACTH

25

melanocyte secreting hormone

stimulates melanin production
skin pigment

26

cell types and appearances in pars distalis

chromophobes- stem cell
acidophils- washed out purple
basophils- intense red

27

pars distalis arrangement

secretory cells in cords around capillaries

28

somatotrophs

release growth hormone

29

GH

stimulates IGF-1 production in liver which induces cell growth and protein synthesis in bone, cartilage and muscle

30

decreased GH

dwarfism

31

increased GH in kids

gigantism

32

increased GH in adults

acromegaly

33

mammotrophs

release prolactin

34

prolactin

milk production
mammary gland growth during pregnancy

35

symptoms:
anovulation
decreased libido
infertility
galactorrhea in males

prolactin secreting tumor

36

corticotrophs

ATCH

37

ATCH

adrenal gland secretion in response to stress

38

thyrotrophs

TSH

39

TSH

thyroid production of T4 and T3

40

gonadotrophs

GSH, LH

41

GSH, LH

reproduction things

42

anorexia

decreased gonadotroph releasing factor which results in female decrease in fertility and male hypogonadism

43

blood supply to pars nervosa

infeiror hypophyseal artery

44

blood supply to hypothalamus, infundibulum, pars tuberalis

superior hypophyseal artery

45

where is the portal circulation

anterior pituitary

46

graves disease

antibody production of TSH- over active thyroid

47

hashimoto's disease

antibodies to thyroglobulin resulting in follicle destruction
hypothyroidism

48

creatinism

fetal hypothyroidism

49

role of thyroid follicle cells

make and secrete T4 and T3 using iodine and thyroglobulin

50

old of parafollicle cells

secrete calcitonin

51

calcitonin

released when Ca is high in the blood
inhibits osteoclasts and stimulates osteoblasts to decrease Ca

52

2 cell types in the thyroid

follicle
parafollicle

53

chief cells

release parathyroid hormone when Ca is low
increase osteoclast activity and gut absorption of Ca

54

effects of aging on the parathyroid

increase connective tissue and adipose

55

result of genetic mutation of chief cells

can't detect Ca levels

56

benign adenomas of parathyroid gland

increased PTH which increases bone demineralization
increased excretion of Ca (a lot around) --> kidney stones

57

idiopathic hypoparathyroidism

tissues don't respond to PTH-- very bad because Ca is needed for NT release and muscle contraction

58

source of cortex of adrenal gland

mesoderm

59

source of medulla of adrenal gland

neural crest

60

zones of the adrenal cortex

zona glomerulosa
zona fasciculata
zona reticularis

61

zona glomerulosa

salt
secrete mineralcorticoids (aldosterone) to maintain blood Na concentration
stimulated by decreased blood Na

62

zona fasciculata

sweet
secretes glucocorticoids (cortisol) in response to stress to increase glucose metabolism in the liver
stimulated by ACTH

63

zona reticularis

sex
secretes androgens
stimulated by ACTH

64

main estrogen source post menopausal

adrenal androgens from the zone reticularis of the adrenal cortex

65

significance of fetal adrenal cortex

secretes DHEA as a precursor to placental hormones

66

cushing syndrome

cortisol over production due to either a pituitary tumor (cushing disease) releasing ACTH or an adrenal tumor releasing cortisol
OR overuse of corticosteroids

67

fat redistribution
muscle wasting
immune suppression

cushings

68

addison's disease

cortisol deficiency due to decreased ACTH release or chronic adrenal destruction by infection

69

hypotension
muscle weakness
increased skin pigmentation

addison's disease

70

chromaffin cells

modified sympathetic post ganglionic neurons found in the adrenal medulla that release either E or NE

71

alpha cells of pancrease

glucagon

72

beta cells

insulin

73

delta cells

somatostatin, gastrin

74

F cells

pancreatic polypeptide

75

glut 2

glucose channel on B cells that allows glucose to enter pancreas so insulin is released
insulin independent

76

glut 4

glucose channel on body cells that uptake glucose when insulin is bound
insulin dependent

77

type 1 diabetes

insulin deficient due to autoimmune destruction of beta cells

78

type 2 diabetes

elevated insulin and high glucose due to error in insulin signaling

79

pinealocytes

secrete melatonin

80

corpora arenacea

brain sand- calcium phosphate precipitations in the pineal gland

81

role of melatonin

regulates sleep/wake cycles
inhibits GRF (inhibits FSH/LH)
regulate puberty onset
tumor suppression

82

oxyphils in parathyroid gland

possible stem cells for chief cells