Urinary Flashcards Preview

HS Exam 2 > Urinary > Flashcards

Flashcards in Urinary Deck (58)
Loading flashcards...
1

what are the functions of the kidney

eliminate wastes
maintain ion concentration
regulate blood volume
maintain blood pressure
hormone synthesis

2

what hormones does the kidney make

erythropoeitin
renin
calcitriol

3

what does calcitriol do

stimulates intestinal absorption of vitamin D

4

what are the parts of the renal tubules (uniferous)

bowman's capsule
proximal and distal tubules (thick, thin, straight, convoluted)
collecting tubules and ducts

5

what are the parts of the nephron

renal corpuscle
proximal and distal tubules

6

what is the renal corpuscle

bowman's capsule and the glomerulus

7

what is the blood supply to the kidney

renal artery--> interlobar arteries--> arcuate artery--> interlobular--> afferent arterioles-> bowman's capsule--> glomerular capillary--> efferent arteriole--> peritubular capillaries and vasa recta--> interlobular vein

8

what happens if one of the vessels in the kidney is obstructed

no anastamoses so that area becomes necrotic

9

where are podocytes

on the basal lamina of the visceral layer of the bowman's capsule

10

what proteins form the diaphragm of filtration slits between podocyte pedicles

nephrin and podocin

11

what type of capillaries glomerular capillaries

fenestrated without diaphragms

12

what forms the glomerular basement membrane

basal laminas of the capillary and podocyte

13

what is the main barrier to filtration

glomerular basement membrane

14

what is in the glomerular basement membrane

type 4 collagen
laminen
fibronectin
glycosaminoglycans

15

what is the order of barriers for urine filtrantion

1. fenestrated capillaries
2. glomerular basememt membrane
3. diaphragms between the podocyte pedicles (nephron and podocin)

16

alport's syndrome

genetic defect in type 4 collagen production
thickened basement membrane, but assembled incorrectly
leaky resulting in proteinuria

17

goodpasture's syndrome

autoimmune disease with antibody production against type 4 colalgen

18

congenital nephrotic syndrome

defect in nephron leading to protein urea due to incorrect diaphragms

19

where are mesangial cells

glomerular basememt membrane
afferent and efferent arterioles

20

what are the roles of mesangial cells

structural support- produces GBM
phagocytic- clears things trapped in GBM
contractile- regulates arteriole blood flow
secrete prostaglandins and growth factors

21

what are the classification of nephropathy

diffuse- all glomeruli affected
foca- some glomeruli affected
global- entire glomerulus affected
segmental- part of glomerulus affected

22

what is glomerulonephritis

inflammation of renal corpuscle

23

what is lupus

thickened GBM due to antibody production

24

what is IgA neuropathy

high IgA means logs of antibody/antigen complexes end up on the GBM which are cleared by mesengial cells
high activity means proliferation which leads to GBM destruction

25

diabetic glomerulosis

increased glycoprotein production resulting in thickening of GBM with inefficient filtration--> protein leakage
due to excess glucose

26

hypertensive nephrosclerosis

2 forms
benign- gradual tunica hypertrophy of arteries
malignant- severe rapid rise in BP causes acute arteriole stenosis

27

describe the proximal convoluted tubule

simple cuboidal epithelium
intercellular interdigitations
basal infoldings with lots of mitochondria

28

proximal tubule filtration/secretion

absorb water, Na, Cl, K, glucose, polypeptides
secrete creatinine

29

what is the role of the loop of henle

maintain interstitium osmotic gradient

30

describe the thin segment of the loop of henle

simple squamous epithelium