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Flashcards in Urinary Deck (58):
1

what are the functions of the kidney

eliminate wastes
maintain ion concentration
regulate blood volume
maintain blood pressure
hormone synthesis

2

what hormones does the kidney make

erythropoeitin
renin
calcitriol

3

what does calcitriol do

stimulates intestinal absorption of vitamin D

4

what are the parts of the renal tubules (uniferous)

bowman's capsule
proximal and distal tubules (thick, thin, straight, convoluted)
collecting tubules and ducts

5

what are the parts of the nephron

renal corpuscle
proximal and distal tubules

6

what is the renal corpuscle

bowman's capsule and the glomerulus

7

what is the blood supply to the kidney

renal artery--> interlobar arteries--> arcuate artery--> interlobular--> afferent arterioles-> bowman's capsule--> glomerular capillary--> efferent arteriole--> peritubular capillaries and vasa recta--> interlobular vein

8

what happens if one of the vessels in the kidney is obstructed

no anastamoses so that area becomes necrotic

9

where are podocytes

on the basal lamina of the visceral layer of the bowman's capsule

10

what proteins form the diaphragm of filtration slits between podocyte pedicles

nephrin and podocin

11

what type of capillaries glomerular capillaries

fenestrated without diaphragms

12

what forms the glomerular basement membrane

basal laminas of the capillary and podocyte

13

what is the main barrier to filtration

glomerular basement membrane

14

what is in the glomerular basement membrane

type 4 collagen
laminen
fibronectin
glycosaminoglycans

15

what is the order of barriers for urine filtrantion

1. fenestrated capillaries
2. glomerular basememt membrane
3. diaphragms between the podocyte pedicles (nephron and podocin)

16

alport's syndrome

genetic defect in type 4 collagen production
thickened basement membrane, but assembled incorrectly
leaky resulting in proteinuria

17

goodpasture's syndrome

autoimmune disease with antibody production against type 4 colalgen

18

congenital nephrotic syndrome

defect in nephron leading to protein urea due to incorrect diaphragms

19

where are mesangial cells

glomerular basememt membrane
afferent and efferent arterioles

20

what are the roles of mesangial cells

structural support- produces GBM
phagocytic- clears things trapped in GBM
contractile- regulates arteriole blood flow
secrete prostaglandins and growth factors

21

what are the classification of nephropathy

diffuse- all glomeruli affected
foca- some glomeruli affected
global- entire glomerulus affected
segmental- part of glomerulus affected

22

what is glomerulonephritis

inflammation of renal corpuscle

23

what is lupus

thickened GBM due to antibody production

24

what is IgA neuropathy

high IgA means logs of antibody/antigen complexes end up on the GBM which are cleared by mesengial cells
high activity means proliferation which leads to GBM destruction

25

diabetic glomerulosis

increased glycoprotein production resulting in thickening of GBM with inefficient filtration--> protein leakage
due to excess glucose

26

hypertensive nephrosclerosis

2 forms
benign- gradual tunica hypertrophy of arteries
malignant- severe rapid rise in BP causes acute arteriole stenosis

27

describe the proximal convoluted tubule

simple cuboidal epithelium
intercellular interdigitations
basal infoldings with lots of mitochondria

28

proximal tubule filtration/secretion

absorb water, Na, Cl, K, glucose, polypeptides
secrete creatinine

29

what is the role of the loop of henle

maintain interstitium osmotic gradient

30

describe the thin segment of the loop of henle

simple squamous epithelium

31

describe the thick segments of the loop of henle

descending- similar to PCT
ascending- similar to DCT

32

describe the distal convoluted tubule

few mitochondria
few apical microvili
simple cuboidal epithelium
intercellular interdigitations

33

what are the functions of the distal convoluted tubule

concentrate urine
ascid base balance

34

what are the 3 components of the JGA

juxtaglomerular cells
macula dense cells
mesengial cells

35

juxtaglomerular cells

tunica media of afferent arteriole
glandular cells that secrete renin

36

macula densa cells

distal tubule
in contact with vascular pole of glomerulus
densely packed
chemoreceptive- sense changes in NaCl urine levels
mediate JG cell renin secretion

37

mesengial cells

between macula dense and JG cells
continuous with mesangial cells around afferent and efferent arterioles
contractile function- regulate bloodf low into glomerulus

38

what cells secrete renin

juxtaglomerular cells

39

what cells relate glomerular blood flow

mesangial cells

40

where are interstitial cells

between the loop of Henle and the vasa recta

41

purpose of interstitial cells

maintain structure
produce erythropoeitin

42

what is interstitial nephritis

inflammation of interstitial area

43

describe collecting ducts/tubules

no microvili
no interdigitations
no basal infoldings
begin as simple cuboidal and then go to columnar
light and dark cells

44

where do collecting ducts converge

large papillary ducts that empty into renal papilla

45

juxtaglomedulary nephrons

extend into medulla

46

cortical nephrons

mostly in cortex

47

what is in the medullary rays

collecting tubules, ducts, loop of henle

48

what is the structure of excretory ducts

epithelium on lamina propria of loose CT
muscularis muscle layer
adventitia outer layer

49

trigone of urinary bladder

area in urinary bladder where urine pools and bacteria build up

50

describe the female urethra

short
goes through pelvic muscles
opening covered by stratified squaous epithelia

51

describe the male urethra

long, sectioned
starts as transitional epithelium-> pseudo stratified columnar-> stratified squamous

52

describe the prostatic urethra

surrounded by prostate
prostatic and ejaculatory ducts join

53

describe the membranous urethra

short, goes through urogenital diaphragm which forms the external urinary sphincter

54

describe the penile urethra

passes through the penis in corpus spongiosum
ducts of bulbourethral glands open into it

55

what is renal tubule necrosis

disease affecting peritubular blood flow

56

renal calculi

kidney stones- uric acid and mineral precipitation

57

renal carcinomas

kidney cancer
clear cell- common kind

58

urothelial carcinoma

bladder cancer, starts in wall and pushes in