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Flashcards in Gross ID Deck (187):
1

falsiform ligament

connects anterior abdominal wall to liver surface
divides liver into right and left lobes

2

median umbilical fold

midline under umbilicus
contains urachus (remnant of allantoic duct)

3

medial umbilical fold

lateral to median umbilical fold
contains remnant of umbilical artery

4

lateral umbilical fold

lateral to medial umbilical fold
over the inferior epigastric artery/vein

5

peritoneum

lines the pelvic and abdominal cavities

6

parietal peritoneum

lines inner surface of the abdominal and pelvic walls

7

visceral peritoneaum

lines surfaces of organs

8

RUQ organs

liver
gallbladder

9

gallbladder location

right 9 costal cartilage at midclavicular line

10

LUQ organs

stomach
spleen

11

greater omentum

attached to lesser curvature of stomach
between intestine and anterior abdominal wall

12

gastrocolic ligament

big part of greater omentum

13

gastrosplenic ligament

aspect of the greater omentum between the stomach and spleen

14

gastrophrenic ligament

aspect of greater momentum between the stomach and the diaphragm

15

jejunum

LUQ

16

ileum

RLQ

17

hepatic flexture

right colic flexture- under liver

18

splenic flexture

left colic flexture- under spleen

19

lesser omentum

around lesser curvature of stomach and part 1 of duodenum to inferior liver surface

20

parts of greater omentum

gastrocolic ligament
gastrophrenic ligament
gastrosplenic ligament

21

parts of lesser omentum

hepatogastric ligament
hepatoduodenal ligament

22

hepatogastric ligament

from liver to lesser curvature of stomach

23

hepatoduodenal ligament

from liver to first part of duodenum

24

round ligament of the liver

inferior edge of falciform ligament
remnant of the umbilical vein

25

coronary ligament

connects liver to diaphragm
surrounds bare area

26

left/right triangular ligaments

between the left/right lobes of liver and diaphragm
folds of coronary ligament

27

splenorenal ligament

spleen to body wall anterior to left kidney

28

transverse mesocolon

attaches the transverse colon to anterior surface of duodenum and pancreas

29

mesentary

suspends jejunum and ileum to posterior wall

30

epiploic foramen of winslow

connects the greater and lesser peritoneal sacs
behind the heptoduodenal ligament

31

cardia of stomach

part right under where the esophagus joins, below cardinal notch

32

fundus of stomach

top

33

pylorus of stomach

meeting between duodenum and stomach

34

pyloric antrum of stomach

wedge between body and pyloric canal

35

pyloric canal

last part of stomach between the pylorus and pyloric antrum

36

pyloric sphincter

inner sphincter in the pylorus of stomach

37

pyloric orafice

opening in the pyloric sphincter

38

rugae

ridges inside stomach

39

porta hepatis or transverse fissure of the liver

fissure on visceral surface of liver that the vessels, ducts, lymphatics, and nerves enter

40

arrangement of structures in hepatic triad

bile duct lateral (right)
hepatic artery proper- left
hepatic portal vein posterior

41

cystic duct

goes from gallbladder to common bile duct

42

hepatic duct

from liver (left and right) to common bile duct

43

where does cystic artery come from

right hepatic artery

44

where does the right gastric artery come from

hepatic artery proper

45

path of gastroduodenal artery and branches

passes posterior to duodenum
right gesture-omental artery
anterior superior pancreaticoduodenal artery

46

where is the left gastric artery

along posterior abdominal wall, superior to pancreas (might be impeded in the pancreas)

47

organs related to visceral surface of the spleen

stomach
left kidney
transverse colon
pancreas

48

ribs associated with diaphragmatic surface of spleen

ribs 9, 10, 11

49

caudate lobe of liver

back, BEHIND the gallbladder

50

quadrate lobe of liver

front, next to the gallbladder

51

right sagittal fissure of liver

line formed by gallbladder and IVC

52

left sagittal fissure of liver

ligamentum venosum and falciform ligament gap

53

path of superior mesenteric artery

comes from aorta, passes anterior to unite process of pancreas, third part of duodenum, left renal vein
enters mesentery and heads toward RLQ

54

branches of the superior mesenteric artery

RIGHT
inferior pancreatico-duodenal artery (posterior/anterior)
middle colic
right colic- ascending and descending branches
iliocolic
LEFT
jejunal and ileal arteries (intestinal)

55

what are the arcades

arched arteries connecting the intestinal arteries (jejunum and ileum)
more complicated in the ileum than jejunum

56

what are straight arteries

bits off of the arcades that are perpendicular to the intestine
longer in jejunum, shorter in ileum

57

what does the iliocolic artery supply

cecum

58

branches of the ileocolic artery

colic (top) and ileum (bottom)
appendicular artery off of ill part
anterior and posterior cecal off of ill part
anastomoses with right colic

59

what are marginal arteries

looped parts connecting the colic arteries

60

what does the right colic artery supply

ascending colon

61

what does the middle colic artery supply

transverse colon

62

where is superior mesenteric vein

next to superior mesenteric artery
joins the splenic vein to form the hepatic portal vein

63

branches of inferior mesenteric artery

left colic- first branch
sigmoid arteries
superior rectal artery- last branch

64

what does the SMA supply

jejunum
ileum
cecum
ascending colon
transverse colon
duodenum
pancreas

65

what does the IMA supply

left 1/3 transverse colon
descending colon
sigmoid colon
rectum

66

what does the left colic artery supply

left 1/2 of transverse
ascending- anastomose with middle colic
descending- anastomose with sigmoid

67

teniae coli

longitudinal muscle on the large intestine

68

haustra

outpouching of large intestine wall

69

omental appendices

fat fingers on large intestine

70

where are the 4 segments of the duodenum

superior- L1, transverse plane
descending- L2, right of midline and anterior to lots
horizontal- L3, anteiror to IVC and aorta
ascending- L2, joins with jejunum at the junction

71

where do the bile duct and pancreatic duct join the duodenum

descending part

72

parts of the pancreas

head
uncinate process
neck
body
tail

73

location of the pancreatic head

being hugged by the duodenum

74

location of pancreatic uncinate process

little projection off the head that is behind the superior mesenteric vessles

75

where is the pancreatic neck

anterior to the superior mesenteric vessels

76

where is the pancreatic body

angled up superiorly crossing midline

77

where is the pancreatic tail

on the left, touching the hilum of the spleen

78

where is the main pancreatic duct

in the head of the pancreas

79

where is the accessory pancreatic duct

joins the superior side of main pancreatic duct (superior to main)

80

branches of the splenic artery supplying the pancreas

dorsal pancreatic
greater pancreatic

81

what forms the hepatic portal vein

SMV and splenic vein

82

where is the splenic vein

posterior to pancreas and inferior to splenic artery

83

where is the gastroesophageal anastamosis

left gastric vein
esophageal veins
azygos vein

84

where is the anorectal anastamoses

superior, inferior, and middle rectal

85

where is the paraumbilical anastamoses

paraumbilical vein/superficial epigastric vein

86

where is the retroperitoneal anastamoses

colic veins
retroperitoneal

87

where are the kidneys

T12-L3

88

what side is the aorta on

left

89

what side is the IVC on

right

90

where are the testicular vessels

in the deep inguinal canal, cross anterior to ureter
branch from aorta at L2 (below where renal arteries come off)

91

where does the testicular veins drain

left- into left renal vein
right- IVC

92

where are the ovarian vessels

cross anterior to ureter
L2

93

what drains into the left renal vein

left suprarenal vein
left testicular/ovarian

94

where is the left renal vein

anterior to both renal arteries and aorta

95

path of ureter in abdomen

renal pelvis
posterior to gonaldal vessels
anterior to soas major
posterior to IMA branches

96

branches of the renal artery

inferior suprarenal artery
ureteric branch

97

relationships of right kidney

right colic flexure
visceral surface of liver
second part of duodenum

98

relationships of left kidney

left colic flexure
stomach
pancreas
spleen

99

where do superior suprarenal arteries come from

inferior phrenic artery

100

where is inferior phrenic artery

off of aorta above celiac trunk

101

where do the middle suprarenal arteries come from

from aorta near celiac trunk

102

where do the inferior suprarenal arteries come from

renal artery

103

what are the 3 unpaired visceral arteries off of the aorta

celiac trunk
SMA
IMA

104

what are the 3 paired visceral arteries off of the aorta

middle suprarenal arteries
renal arteries
gonadal

105

what are the paired somatic arteries

lumbar arteriers
inferior phrenic arteries

106

where are lumbar arteries

4 pairs, go into the posts muscle

107

where does the abdominal aorta end

L4

108

things that drain into the IVC

renal vein
suprarenal vein
gonadal vein
*some are indirect via the left renal vein
lumbar vein
inferior phrenic veins

109

shape of left suprarenal gland

semilunar

110

shape of right suprarenal gland

triangular

111

where is the iliacus

iliac fossa, extends to femur

112

where is quadrates lumborum

next to spine, out from posts major
stops at iliac crest

113

transversus abdominis

lateral posterior wall, under quadratus lumborum

114

where is the genitofemoral nerve

anterior surface of psoas major
nerve of lumbar plexus
passes anterior to femoral nerve

115

branches of genitofemoral nerve and destinations

genital- goes through deep inguinal ring, motor nerve to cremaster muscle
femoral- under inguinal ligament, supplies skin inferior and medial to inguinal ligament (cremaster reflex)

116

where is the subcostal nerve

under rib 12

117

where is the iliohypogastric and ilioinguinal nerves

descend from anterior surface of quadrates lumborum and split at the transversus abdominins

118

where does the ilioinguinal nerve go

through the superficial inguinal ring

119

what is innervated by the iliohypogastric nerve

skin over pubis

120

what is innervated by the ilioinguinal nerve

upper scrotum and base of penis
mons pubis and labia

121

where is the lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh

deep to inguinal ligament near anterior thigh
in the iliac fossa anterior to the iliac muscle

122

order of nerves off of the lumbar area

subcostal T12
iliohypogastric L1
ilioinguinal L1
genitofemoral
lateral femoral cutaneous
femoral
obturator

123

pneumonic for nerves off of lumbar plexus

indecent ian gets laid on fridays luckily
iliohypogastric
ilioinguinal
genitofemoral
lateral femoral cutaneous
obturator
femoral
lumbosacral trunk

124

where is the femoral nerve

lateral to posts major, in groove between posts major and iliacus

125

where is the obturator nerve

between the psoas major and common iliac vessels

126

where is the lumbosacral trunk

large nerve under obturator, starts at L4/5
goes into the pelvis and joins the sacral plexus

127

right crus of diaphragm

L1 and L3
opening for esophagus in it

128

left crus of diaphragm

L1 and L2

129

where are the arcuate ligaments

fascia thickenings below diaphragm

130

lateral arcuate ligament

anterior surface of quadrates lumborum

131

medial arcuate ligament

anterior surface of psoas major

132

median arcuate ligament

anteiror surface of aorta and aortic hiatus

133

diaphragm openings

vena cava- T8 central tendon
esophagus- T10 right crus
aorta- T12 behind diaphragm (median arcuate ligament)

134

what does the phrenic nerves do

diaphragm
sensory innervation for abdominal and thoracic surfaces

135

where are the splanchnic nerves

superior to diaphragm, come off at certain levels
enter the abdomen and combine to form the plexus

136

what are cisterna chyli

lymph nodes behind the celiac trunk

137

superior mesenteric plexus

around SMA

138

inferior mesenteric plexus

around IMA

139

where are the suprarenal veins

entering IVC superior to renal veins

140

arcuate line of the pelvis

around inside, separates the false from true pelvis

141

where is the iliac tubercle

top of the iliac crest in the center

142

what is in the ishioanal fossa

inferior rectal nerve and vessels
external anal sphincter

143

what does the inferior rectal nerve innervate

external anal sphincter and skin around anus

144

what is in the pudendal canal nd where is it

pudendal nerve
internal pudendal artery/vein
located inside obturator muscle

145

layers of the scrotum

skin
dartos fascia + muscle
external spermatic fascia
cremaster fascia/muscle
internal spermatic fascia
parietal layer of tunica vaginalis
visceral layer of tunica vaginalis

146

in a male, what is the bulbospongiosus muscle covering

bulb of the penis

147

in a male, what does the ishiocavernosus muscle cover?

crura of the corpus cavernosus

148

where is the perineal body

fibrous between the anterior canal and the penis

149

layers of the penis

skin
dartos
buck's
tunica albuginea- around each body

150

where are the superficial dorsal vessels of the penis

anteiror surface, superficial fascia

151

what is in the Buck's fascia

corpus spongiosum
corpus cavernosum
deep dorsal vein of penis
dorsal artery of penis
dorsal nerve of penis

152

where do the bulbourethral glands join the urethra

proximal spongy

153

order of the urethra parts

prostatic
membranous
spongy

154

rectovesicular pouch

space between the rectum and bladder

155

path of ductus deferens

deep inguinal ring
superior and medial to the internal iliac arteries
crosses superior to ureter
enters rectovesical septum
passes over posterior surface of bladder

156

where is the prostate

below the bladder

157

seminal vesicles

lateral to the ampulla of the ductus defers in the rectovesical septum

158

retropubic/prevesical space

between the pubic symphysis and the urinary bladder

159

parts of urinary bladder

apex- toward anterior abdominal wall
body- between apex and funds
fundus- inferior part of posterior wall
neck- where urethra exits

160

where is the trigone

inner surface of funds formed by the internal urethral orifice and orifices of the ureters

161

what vessels are in the anal columns

superior rectal artery/vein

162

what causes internal hemorrhoids

enlargmentof the superior anal veins due to increased portal pressure

163

what causes external hemorrhoids

enlargement of inferior rectal veins

164

umbilical artery

in the medial umbilical ligament- remnant
superior vesical arteries branch off and go to the superiolateral part of urinary bladder

165

obturator artery

goes into the obturator cannal

166

inferior vesical artery

goes toward funds and supplies bladder, seminal vesicle, prostate
**branche of vaginal artery in females

167

middle rectal artery

goes to rectum, comes off near inferior vesicle
branches to seminal vesicle and prostate

168

internal pudendal artery

exits greater sciatic foramen inferior to performs

169

inferior gluteal artery

goes out of pelvic cavity through greater sciatic foramen inferior to piriformis after going over the lumbosacral trunk and then behind the lower sacral nerve

170

iliolumbar artery

goes up from posterior division of internal iliac, then splits into lumbar and iliac branches
lumbar goes up
iliac goes along iliac crest and anastamoses with deep iliac circumflex

171

lateral sacral artery

travels medially to meet up with the middle sacral artery

172

superior gluteal artery

exits superior to piriformis after passing over the lumbosacral trunk and then diving behind S1

173

where is the sacral plexus

between the rectum and the performs muscle

174

sciatic nerve

exits pelvis inferior to piriformis through the greater sciatic foramen

175

pudendal nerve

exits inferior to piriformis through the greater sciatic foramen

176

what is the pelvic diaphragm

levator ani and coccygeus muscles and fascia covering them

177

where is the arcus tendinous

line between the obturator interns and elevator ani
located inferior to the line between the obturator canal and the ishial spine

178

puborectalis muscle

attaches anteriorly to pubis and posteriorly to puborectalis on the other side (midline raphe)
surrounds urogenital hiatus
forms anorectal flexure at the ampulla of rectum
relaxes during defecation

179

pubococcygeus muscle

attahces to body of pubis and the coccyx

180

levator ani muscle

puborectalis
pubococcygeus
iliococcygeus
forms the pelvic floor

181

iliococcygeus muscle

attaches to the tendinous arch and the coccyx

182

coccygeus muscle

posteiror muscle of the pelvic diaphragm
attaches to ishial spin and coccyx

183

obturator intternus muscle

lateral anterior of pelvic diaphragm and lateral wall of sischioanal fossa
attaches to the obturator foramen and exits through it to attach to the femur

184

piriformis muscle

posteiror superior boarder of the pelvic area

185

vesicouterine pouch

transition of peritoneum from the superior bladder surface to the uterus

186

rectouterine pouch

transition of the peritoneum from the uterus to rectum

187

structure in endopelvic fascia supportin gthe uterus

uterosacral ligament
transverse cervical ligament
pubocertical ligament