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Flashcards in Posterior Abdominal Wall Deck (64):
1

what spaces is the retroperitoneal space continuous with

pelvic cavity
diaphragm
subserous fascia

2

what nerves are associated with the posterior abdominal wall

T12-L5

3

what areas drain lymph through the retroperitoneal space

GI tract
pelvis
reproductive organs

4

what forms the esophageal hiatus

right crus of the diaphragm

5

what for the aortic hiatus

right and left crura of the diaphragm

6

what forms the median arcuate ligament?

right and left crura of diaphragm

7

tendinous arches of the diaphragm

meidan, medial and lateral form as thickenings of transferals fascia

8

what is the blood supply to the diaphragm

superior- pericardiacophrenic, musculophrenic
inferior- inferior phrenic from aorta

9

what is the innervation of the diaphragm

motor and sensory- phrenic (C3,4,5)
intercostals- sensory

10

where is the referred pain location for the diaphragm

shoulder

11

where are the 3 openings in the diaphragm and what goes through them

T8- IVC
T10- esophagus
T12- aorta

12

where is the median arcuate ligament

aortic hiatus

13

where is the medial arcuate ligament

over psoas major

14

where is the lateral arcuate ligament

over quadratus lumborum

15

what main structures pass through the diaphragm and where do they go through

IVC- T8
esophagus- T10
aorta- T12

16

what passes through the esophageal hiatus

esophagus
vagus trunks

17

what passes through the aortic hiatus

aorta
thoracic duct
sometimes the asecending lumbar veins

18

what passes through the crura of the diaphragm

greater and lesser splanchnic nerves
sometimes the ascending lumbar veins

19

what are the 4 muscles of the posterior abdominal wall

quardatus lumborum
posts major
psoas minor (sometimes)
iliacus

20

where is the quadratus lumborum muscle and what does it form

superior to the iliac crest
forms lateral arcuate ligament

21

function of the quadrates lumborum muscle

flex trunk

22

where is the posterior major muscle and what does it form

next to spine
forms medial arcuate ligament

23

function of posts major

hip flexor

24

where is the posterior minor muscle and what does it form

tendon on top of psoas major
may be missing
forms medial arcuate ligament

25

function of psoas minor

hip flexor

26

where is the iliac muscle

in the iliac fossa

27

function of iliac muscle

hip flexor

28

what does the subcostal nerve supply

T12- hypogastric region

29

where is the iliohypogastric nerve

L1- lowest cutaneous nerve on the abdomen

30

where is the ilioinguinal nerve and what does it supply

L1- in the inguinal canal
skin of scrotum and medial thigh
sensory aspect of cremaster reflex

31

where is the genitofemoral nerve and what does it supplly

L1-2 on the surface of the psoas muscle
splits into 2 nerves- genital and femoral branches

32

where is the genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve and what does it do

medial branch of genitofemoral nerve
in the spermatic cord
supplies the cremaster reflex

33

where is the femoral branch of genitofemoral nerve

lateral branch of genitofemoral nerve
goes to medial thigh to assist in cremaster reflex

34

what does the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve supply

L3-4, anterior superior iliac spine

35

where is the femoral nerve and what does it supply

L2-4 posteiror and lateral to psoas
hip flexors and knee extensors

36

where is the obturator nerve and what does it supply

L2-4, exits obturator foramen and supplies the adductors

37

where is the lumbosacral trunk

L4-5 on the surface of the sacrum
gives off sciatic nerve

38

what is Gerota's fascia

surrounds the kidneys
closed superiorly and laterally, but opened inferiorly and medially so blood and urine can move between left and right and drain into the pelvic cavity

39

what covers kidneys

periphrenic fat and Gerona's fascia

40

where is the right kidney

T12-L3 (due to liver)

41

where is the left kidney

T11-L2

42

why are the right renal artery and left renal vein longer than their partners

aorta is on left
IVC is on right

43

nutcracker relationship

the left renal vein is between the SMA and the aorta
can increase the pressure in the left gonadal vein and cause a varicocele

44

what is the right kidney in contact with

liver
ascending colon
ileum
duodenum
suprarenal gland

45

what is the left kidney in contact with

stomach
spleen
pancreas
transverse mesocolon
descending colon
jejunum
suprarenal gland

46

what are the 5 segmental branches of the renal artery

apical- top most anteriorly
anterior superior- second anteriorly
anterior inferior- third anteriorly
inferior- last anteirorly
posterior- goes to posterior side

47

what is the order of vessels from the renal artery

segmental--> interlobar--> arcuate--> interlobular--> afferent arteriole--> glomerulus--> efferent arteriole

48

what is the innervation of the kidney

least splanchnic nerve

49

where does the ureter exit the kidney

at the hilum, most posterior structure

50

why does compression of the left renal vein cause a varicocele

the left gonadal vein drains into the left renal vein before reaching the IVC
compression of the left renal vein backs up the blood into the left gonadal vein

51

describe the path of the ureter

passes posteriorly to the gonadal vessels
passes anteriorly to common iliac vessels, lateral to the internal iliac vessels to enter the pelvis

52

what is the blood supply of the ureters while they are in the retroperitoneum and from where does the blood supply originate (significance?)

renal artery
gonadal artery
aorta
originates medially- reflect the ureters medially here

53

what is the blood supply of the ureters while they are in the pelvis and from where does the blood supply originate (significance?)

vesicle artery
uterine artery
middle rectal artery
originates laterally- reflect ureters laterally here

54

what are the 3 points where kidney stones are most likely to get stuck

ureteropelvic junction
crossing iliac vessels
ureterovesicle junction

55

what is the arterial supply to the suprarenal gland

branches of inferior phrenic, aorta, renal

56

what is the venous supply draining the suprarenal galnd

1 vein
right- IVC
left- drains to renal vein

57

what is the innervation of the suprarenal glands

preganglionic fibers (lesser and least splanchnic T10-T12) that do not synapse at the ganglion but go directly to chromatin cells of medulla

58

what is the name for kidney stones

renal calculi

59

what is the innervation to the ureter

T11-L2

60

where is referred pain for the kidney/ureter

starts on side and then goes inferiorly down around back

61

path of metastasis of left bladder cancer

left iliac--> paraaortic--> aortic-> interaorticocaval

62

path of metastasis for right bladder cancer

right paracaval-> interaorticocaval-> aortic-> left para-aortic

63

drainage path of things superior to umbilicus

superior to parasternal and axillary nodes

64

drainage path of things inferior to umbilicus

skin and superficial fascia- inferior to inguinal nodes
muscle- exteral iliac nodes via inferior epigastric and deep iliac circumflex