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Flashcards in Breast histology* Deck (26)
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how many lobes is the secretary breast tissue made of



what each lobe consist of

compound tubulo acinar gland which drains via a series of ducts leading to the nipple


what is adjacent to the secretory lobules and what is it surrounded by

dense fibrous tissue surrounded by adipose tissue


what are suspensor ligaments of cooper

increased condensations of fibrocollagenous tissue that extend to the dermis of the skin and support the breast


where do the lactiferous ducts start and end

branch from each lobule and end at the end of the nipple


what do terminal ducts lead into and then what and then

interlobular collecting duct and then extra lobular collecting duct which then leads to lactiferous duct. this then leads to the nipple and passes through a sinus


what is the lactiferous sinus

the duct expands for a short distance and then gets smaller again - allows a reserver for milk to build up for breastfeeding


what is the lining of larger ducts

columnar epithelium


what is the lining of secretary acini

cuboidal or low columnar epithelium


what are both larger ducts and secretary acini surrounded by

myoepithelial cells - contractile epithelial cells


what do breast glands look similar to

sweat glands


what is the nipple covered by

high pigmented keratinized stratified squamous epithelium


what is the core of the nipple

dense irregular connective tissue mixed with bundles of smooth muscle


why is smooth muscle in the core of the nipple

for nipple erection


what can be seen in a transverse section through the nipple (2)

lactiferous sinuses
sebaceus glands which produce oil to help with the protection of the nipples during breastfeeding


what happens to the lining of the lactiferous duct as it reaches the surface

changes from being one cell thick to stratified columnar epithelium to stratified squamous epithelium


what happens to the epithelial cells during the luteal phase

increase in height
lamina of ducts becomes enlarged and small secretions appear in ducts


changed in the mamary glands during the first trimester

elongation and branching of the smaller ducts and proliferation of the epithelial cells of the glands and the myoepithelial cells


what changes occur in the second trimester to the mammary gland

tissue continues to develop with differentiation of secretory alveoli
plasma cells and lymphocytes infiltrate the nearby connective tissue


what changes occur in the third trimester in the mammary gland

alveoli continue to mature with development of extensive rER


what are changes to the mammary gland accompanied

reduction in the amount of connective tissue and adipose tissue present


what happens during pregnancy in terms of hormone production

oestrogen and progesterone stimulate proliferation of secretory tissue and fibre fatty tissue becomes sparse


composition of human milk

88% water
1.5% protein (daily lactalbumin and casein)
7% carbohydrate (daily lactose)
3.5% lipid

small amounts of ions, vitamins and IgA antibodies


how does apocrine secretion take place

lipid droplets bud off from mammary acini and end up as almost vesicles with surrounding membrane


how does merocrine secretion take place

proteins in milk are made rER packaged by golgi and secreted as vesicles which merge with apical membrane to release their content into the duct system


what happens to the secretory cells of the TDLU following menopause and what happens to the connective tissue

secretory cells degenerate leaving one ducts
connective tissue - fewer fibroblasts and reduced collagen and elastic fibres