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Flashcards in Histology* Deck (47):
1

Ovary:
Hilum?
Cortex?
Medulla?
superficial?

hilum - where the blood supply enters - helicon arteries enter from the broad ligament
cortex - contains follicles
medulla - high vascular, connective tissue, nerves, lymphatics
superficial fibrous cortex covered by epithelium

2

list the layers of the ovary from the top to deep

simple cuboidal epithelium
dense connective tissue: tunica albuginea
connective tissue with stromal cells and muscle fibres
ovarian follicles present at various stages of development

3

when do germ cells from the yolk sac invade the ovaries and proliferate by mitosis to form oogonia

around week 6

4

what happens to those germ cells

undergo development and division to via meiosis to form mature oocytes also known as ova

5

what is oogenesis and what is fulliculogenesis

O - development of oocytes the female germ cells from oogonia
F - growth of follicles which consist of the oocyte and any associated support cells

6

6 weeks - number and name of cells
7 months
birth
puberty
menopause

1700 germ cells
5 million oogonia
1 mill primary oocytes
500000 all types of follicles
few

7

how does loss of oogonia and oocytes occur

apoptotic process call atresia - cell reabsorbed after death

8

when does meiosis halt
when does it recontinue

prophase 1
if the oocyte undergoes further development then meiosis will restart otherwise it will remain in this state for several decades

9

what kind of cell surrounds the primary oocyte

pregranulosa cells without which it would die
squamous cells but when the follicle grows they become cuboidal

10

what are the 2 changes that happen to cells around the primary oocyte after development

stroll cells are associated with the outside and go on to become the theca
zona pellucid forms between the oocyte and the granulosa cells

11

with further development which layer proliferates

granular layer

12

what happens to the stroll cells

inner layers - theca interna - secrete oestrogen precursors
outer layer will remain fibroblast like and form theca external

13

what releases oestrogen precursors and what happens to them then

theca interna
converted to oestrogen by the granulosa cells

14

describe the layers of the late primary follicle
what begins to happen in one of the layers

theca externa
theca interna
basal lamina
granulosa
zona pellucida

the granulosa cells begin to split

15

what is the space within the follicle called

antrum
fills with follicular fluid
oocyte still remains surrounded by a granular cells

16

when the oocyte detaches from the wall what are the granulosa cells surrounding it called

cumulus cells/corona radiata

17

what are the largest follicles called and how wide can they be

graafian follicles
20mm in dm

18

what happens in an oocyte in the largest graafian follicle one day before occupation

meiosis 1 but instead of 2 cells it will produce one cell called the secondary oocyte

19

what happens to other polar body that is formed

carried away to degenerate

20

what does the secondary oocyte trigger
where does that stop

second phase of meiosis
metaphase 2

21

when is meiosis completed

after it has been released (ovulation) and fertilised by a sperm will it become a fully mature oocyte

22

after ovulation what does the follicle transform into

corpus luteum

23

what do the theca and granulosa cells then secrete

oestrogen and progesterone which help prepare the uterus for implantation

24

if no implantation occurs what happens to the CL

becomes white coloured connective tissue called corpus albicans

25

what happens if implantation occurs

placenta secretes HCG which prevents degeneration of the CL

26

where of the funnel shaped infindibulum move

moves so its opening is adjacent to the site where the follicle ruptures

27

how does the ovum move down the tube

propelled by gentle peristalsis and currents created by ciliated epithelium

28

what do secretory cells in the epithelium secrete

nutrients

29

where does fertilisation usually occur

ampulla and the fertilised ovum is then transported tot he uterus for implantation

30

fallopian tube labelled from the end to the middle

fimbria
infundibulum
ampulla
isthmus
interstitial part

31

what does the ampulla look like

mucosa is folded and lined by simple columns epithelium with ciliated cells and secretory cells. surrounded by 2 layers smooth muscle

32

what does the isthmus look like

epithelium mostly secretory with few ciliated cells
3 layers of smooth muscle

33

what is the uterine wall made up of
inner secretory mucosa called what
then middle
outer layer

endometrium - shed during periods - made up of tubular secretory glands embedded in CT stroma
coat of 3 layers of SM combined with collaged and elastin called the myometrium
outer visceral covering of loose connective tissue covered by mesothelium - perimetrium

34

what is the inner layer divided into

stratum functionalis - undergoes monthly growth, degeneration and loss
stratum basal is - reserve tissue that regenerates SF (part of endometrium and myometrium)

35

during the proliferative phase what happens

glands, stroma and vasculature grow - increases the thickness of the endometrium

36

what happens during the secretory phase

glands become coiled with a corkscrew appearance and secrete glycogen

37

what happens during the menstrual phase

arterioles in the functionalism undergo constriction - ischeamia - tissue breakdown and tissue sloughing

38

what is the cervix

short cylinder with a small lumen that projects into the upper vagina

39

what is the histology of the cervix

mostly fibrous connective tissue covered by stratified squamous epithelium on its vaginal surface by transitioning to mucous secreting epithelium simple columnar epithelium - transition zone - frequent place for cancer

40

where are the mucous secreting epithelium of the canal

deep furrowed - forms endocervical glands which secrete thin stuff first to allow sperm through then thick stuff to prevent the passage of sperm and micro organisms after ovulation

41

list the 4 layers of vagina

non keratinised stratified squamous eputhlium
lamina propria
fibromuscular layer
adventitia

42

are there glands in the walls of the vagina

no - lubricated y mucous form cervical glands and fluid from the thin walled vessels of the lamina propria

43

how is the growth of pathogenic bacteria inhibited

commensal bacteria metabolise the glycogen to lactic acid which inhibit the growth

44

what is the external gentile outer layer called and what does it consist of

labia majora
extension of mons pubis, similar structure and rich in apocrine swear glands and sebeceous glands and with small bundles of smooth muscle
hair follicles on the outside

45

labia minora
lacks
has more of

thin skin that lack subcut fat and hair follicles
rich in vasculature and sebaceous glands

46

where is the transition in cells in the labia minora

hymen - goes from keratinised from opening of vagina to hymen then its non keratinised stratified squamous epithelium

47

what does the clitoris contain

two tubes of erectile vascular tissue covered by fibrocollageneous sheath covered by skin with rich innervation and a thin epidermis