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Flashcards in Preterm infant Deck (43)
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1

preterm defiintion

<37 weeks

2

term birth definition

between 27-42 weeks

3

post term definition

>42 weeks

4

below 31 weeks is what

very preterm

5

below 27 weeks is what

extremely preterm

6

why do half of deaths in childhood occur during the first year of a child's life

strongly influenced by prefer delivery and low brith weight

7

causes of preterm birth

cervical incompetence/uterine malformation
antepartum haemorrhage
IUGR
preg assoc htn
premature pre labour rupture of membranes
multiple pregnancy
spontaneous preterm labour

8

what does >2 preterm deliveries increase the risk of

another preterm baby by 70%

9

how much does an abnormally shaped uterus increase the risk of giving birth early by

19%

10

how many more times likely are women to give birth early if they have multiple pregnancy

9x more likely

11

risk factors of preterm birth

interval of <6 months between pregnancies
conceiving through in vitro fertilisation
smoking, alcohol, drugs
poor nutrition, chronic conditions (BP, DM), multiple miscarriages or abortions

12

different between a term baby and a preterm baby when they are first born

get cold faster - smaller
have more fragile lungs so don't breathe effectively
have fewer reserves
pulse oximetry often indicated

13

do preterm babies need assistance or resuscitations

most very preterm babies need help with transition to air breathing - assistance

14

when should cord clamping be done in preterm babies

if the baby is okay and can be kept warm pause for at least a minute to allow placental transfusion

15

how are preterm babies kept warm

using a plastic bag or a heater
prewarm incubators
skin to skin
trans warmer mattress

16

risks of lung inflation

lungs are fragile so over inflation can cause damage leading to inflammation and long term morbidity - can lead to bronchopulmonary dysplasia

17

concerns in a preterm baby

temp control
feeding/nutrition
sepsis
systemic immaturity - RDS, PDA, ibraventricular haemorrhage, necrotising enterocolitis

18

hypothermia is a risk factor for what
what does it increase

neonatal death
increases severity of all preterm morbidities

19

why is thermal regulation ineffective in a preterm baby

low BMR
minimal muscle activity
subcut fat insulation is negligible
high ratio of surface area to body mass

20

why is there an increased risk of potential nutritional compromise

limited nutritional reserves
immature metabolic pathways
increased nutritional demands

21

what is gestational correction

adjusts the plot of measurement on the graph to account for the number of weeks a baby was born early

22

when should gestational correction not be used for under 40 weeks baby

for 37+ weeks

23

when should gestational correction be used till

1 year for infants born 32-36 weeks
2 years for infants born before 32 weeks

24

what are the two types of neonatal sepsis

early onset mainly due to bacteria acquired before and after delivery

late onset acquired after delivery

25

which organisms cause neonatal sepsis

group b strep
gram neg - klebsiella, EColi, pseudomonas, salmonella
gram pos - SA, coag neg staph, strep pneumonia, strep pyogenes

26

management of neonatal sepsis

prevention
hand washing
super vigilant and infection screening
judicial use of antibiotics
optimum supportive measures

27

what increases infection

incubators

28

what are some of the respiratory complications of prematurity

RDS
apnoea of prematurity
bronchopulmonary dysplasia

29

NRDS pathology

primary - surfactant deficiency, structural immaturity
secondary - alveolar damage, formation of exudate from leaky capillaries, inflammation, repair

30

when is RDS common

75% in <29 weeks born
10% in >32 weeks gestation