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Flashcards in Ovarian cancer Deck (26):
1

types of ovarian cysts

follicular eg. polycystic ovaries
luteal
endometriotic
epithelial
mesothelial

2

follicular cysts are what
when do they form
size
describe them
tx

very common

can form when ovulation doesn't occur - follicle doesn't rupture but grows till it becomes a cyst

can grow up to several cm

thin walled, lined by granulosa cells

usually resolve over a few months

3

what can endometriosis cause in terms of symptoms

pelvic inflammation which can result in scarring of the fallopian tubes and lead to infertility
pain

4

sites of endometriosis

ovary
pouch of douglas
peritoneal surfaces
cervix/vulva/vgaina
bladder, bowel etc
in abdomen on CSec scar

5

pathogens of endometriosis

regurgitation
metaplasia
vascular or lymphatic dissemination

6

macroscopic ovarian endometriosis

peritoneal spots or nodules
fibrous adhesions
choc cysts

7

microscopic endometriosis

endometrial glands and stroma
haemorrhage, inflammation, fibrosis

8

cx of endometriosis

pain
cyst formation
infertility
ectopic preg
malignancy

9

ovarian tumours classification

epithelial
germ cell
sex cord/stromal
mets
other

10

epithelial ovarian tumours

serous
mucinous
endometrioid
clear cell
brenner

11

benign epithelial ovarian tumours

no cytological abnormalities, proliferative activity absent or scant, no stromal invasion

12

borderline epithelial ovarian tumours

cytological abnormalities, proliferative
no stromal invasion

13

malignant epithelial ovarian tumours

stormal invasion

14

high grade serous carcinoma

more common
serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma
most cases are tubal in origin

15

low grade serous carcinoma

serous borderline tumour

16

what has a strong association with endometriosis of the ovary

endometrioid and clear cell

17

what is brenner tumour

tumour of transitional type epithelium, usually benign

18

what percentage of ovarian tumours are germ cell tumours

15-20%

19

what are dermoid cysts

mature benign cystic teratomas
95% of germ cell tumours
skin, resp epithelium, gut, fat, sebum, hair

20

other kinds of germ cell tumours

immature teratoma - rare
dysgerminoma
yolk sac tumour
choriocarcinoma
mixed germ cell tumour

21

what is dysgerminoma
who

most common malignant primitive germ cell tumour
children and young women av age 22

22

stromal tumours types

fibroma/thecoma - benign, may produce oestrogen causing bleeding

granulosa cell tumour - all potentially malignant, may be assoc with oestrogen malfestations

sertoli-leydig cell tumours - rare, may produce androgens

23

figo staging of ovarian cancer
1A
1B
1C
2A
2B
3A
3B
3C
4

1A tumour limited to one ovary
1B both ovaries
1C cancer involving ovarian surface/rupture/surgical spill/tumour in washings
2A - extension or implants on uterus/fallopian tube
2B extension to other pelvic intraperitoneal
3A retroperitoneal LN mets or microscopic extra pelvic peritoneal involvement
3B macroscopic peritoneal mets beyond pelvic up to 2cm in dimension
3C macroscopic peritoneal mets >2cm in dimension
4 distant mets

24

fallopian tubes can have what

inflammation - salpingitis
cysts and tumours
serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas
endometriosis
ectopic preg

25

difference between chronic and acute salpingitis

chronic has lymphocytes

26

who should a dx of ectopic preg be considered in

female of reproductive age with amenorrhea and acute hypotension or an acute abdomen