Flashcards in Cellular Accumulations Deck (24):
What is lipofucin?
Undigested remnants of lipid peroxidation, occurs with cellular aging
Causes of hypertrophy of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum?
Adaptive response to drugs
Esp. barbituates, alcohol, and insectisides
Give examples of two diseases in which cytoskeletal abnormalities build up
Mallory bodies in alcoholic liver disease
Neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer
Where does fatty change tend to happen?
Can also hit heart, muscle, and kidney
What happens in fatty change?
Lipid transport via complex with lipid acceptor proteins doesn't work. Ribosomal dispersion or damage from free rads or Ca causes decreased protein synthesis. Can't make the lipid acceptor proteins, so you can't get them out.
Causes of fatty change?
Chronic alcohol intake, carbon tetrachloride, acetaminophen
Clear vacuoles may contain...
Water, glycogen, fat, etc.
Two types of calcification
Dystrophic calcification happens when...
Ca is deposited into necrotic tissue
Metastatic calcification happens when..
Ca is deposited into viable tissue (hypercalcemia)
When might metastatic calcification occur?
Hyperparathyroidism, Vit D toxicosis, tumors with increased bone catabolism (myeloma), or renal failure (secondary para)
What does calcification look like under a microscope?
Granular, basophilic material
Eosinophilic cytoplasmic desposits lead to...
What are Russell bodies?
Accumulation of immunoglobulins in endoplasmic reticulum of plasma cells
Hyaline change in the proximal renal tubules means...
you're leaking protein into the urine
Important details for Glycogen accumulation?
Assocaited with abnormal glucose values, glycogen metabolism or glycogen storage diseases
Two examples of exogenous pigments that can accumulate in cells
1. Anthracosis (carbon particles in the macrophages of the lungs)
2. Tattoo Ink (dermal macrophages)
Example of an endogenous pigment that builds over time
Lipofuscin -- Wear and tear, aging pigment
Made from membrane turnover
Prominent in heart and liver
What should you think of if you see lipofuscin in a younger patient
Cachexia assocaited with cancer
What does lipofuscin look like
Golden brown, granular
Perinuclear in cytoplasm
What is hemosiderin?
A break down product of hemoglobin by macrophages made of aggregates of ferritin granules
What is hemochromatosis?
A genetic disease resulting in the extreme accumulation of hemosiderin. Hits the liver, pancreas, skin, and pituitary
What is bilirubin made of?
The non-iron component of hemoglobin, normally removed in the bile