Tumor Growth and Metastasis Flashcards Preview

Pathology -- Gen Path > Tumor Growth and Metastasis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Tumor Growth and Metastasis Deck (23):
1

Two examples of factors that promote angiogenesis?

VEGF and basic-FGF

2

Features of angiogenic vessels brought to tumors

Tortuous, Irregularly shaped
Leaky
Poor Blood Flow

3

How do cells lose cohesiveness with their clonal populations?

Loss of homotypic adhesion proteins, Downregulation of E-cadherin.

4

How do tumor cells manage to migrate through the ECM?

Attachment to matrix components
Degradation of ECM

5

How do tumor cells attach to matrix components

Increased ECM adhesion proteins (integrins+IgFamily)
Increased Laminin+Fibronectin binding
Loss of BM Orientation

6

How do tumor cells degrade ECM?

Secretion of serine, cysteine, and MMPs

7

MMP __ and __ clear type 4 collagen

2 and 9

8

Bronchiogenic carcinoma tends to head to...

the adrenal medulla

9

Gastric cancer tends to head to...

biolateral ovaries
(Krukenberg tumor)

10

Two tumors with known strong anti-tumor immune responses

Melanoma
Renal Cell Carcinoma

11

Immunomodulators considered for treatment of cancer

interferons
IL2
TNF

12

Three paraneoplastic syndromes associated with overproduction of proteins

Multiple Myeloma
Waldestrom's macroglobulinemia (IgM)
Medullary Carcinoma of the Thyroid

13

What is produced in Multiple Myeloma

light chains (Bence Jones proteins) that cause renal damage

14

What is produced in Waldestrom's macroglobulinemia

IgM that causes hyperviscosity syndrome

15

What is produced in Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid

Calcitonin leading to amyloidosis

16

Examples of three kinds of cancer that cause overproduction of hormones

1. Testicular/Ovarian -- Feminnizing/Masculinizing Hormones
2. Insulinoma -- hypoglycemia
3. Adrenal cortical carcinoma (causes cushings)

17

ACTH ssproduociated with the development of which kind of cancer?

SCLC

18

Symptoms associated with Cachexia?

anorexia, malabsorption, generalized wasting, fever
TNF-alpha

19

Cancer associated with hypercalcemia from parathyroid-like hormone release?

Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lung

20

Cancer associated with hypercoagulability syndromes?

Pancreatic Cancer (migrating thrombophlebitis)

21

Four famous tumor markers

CEA
alpha-fetoprotein
PSA
CA-125

22

Whats the point of staging a tumor?

Assessing the degree of invasion and metastasis.

23

Whats the point of grading a tumor?

Assess the degree of differentiation
(Higher score = more dedifferentiated = worse progn.)