Chemical Mediators of Inflammation Flashcards Preview

Pathology -- Gen Path > Chemical Mediators of Inflammation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chemical Mediators of Inflammation Deck (59):
1

Examples of pre-formed mediators

Histamine, Serotonin, and some lysosomal enzymes.

2

Important categories of plasma proteins in inflammation?

Coagulation proteins -- Hageman factor, plasmin
Fibrinopeptides (Fibrin Degredation products)
Complement Proteins (C3a, C5a, C3b)
Kinins
Immunoglobulins

3

Activation of ________ plays a key role in activating most of the other plasma proteins

Hageman Factor

4

Newly synthesized products in inflammation are usually made by....

Endothelial Cells
Monocytes
Fibroblasts

5

Clotting/Fibrinolytic System. Pre-formed and Newly synthesized messenger?

Pre -- Histamne
New -- Prostaglandins

6

Complement System. Pre-formed and Newly synthesized messenger?

Pre -- Serotonin
New -- Leukotrienes

7

Kinin System. Pre-formed and Newly synthesized messenger?

Pre -- Lysosomal Enzymes
New -- PAF, Cytokines

8

Where dos fast release histamine come from

lysis of mast cells, basophils

9

where does serotonin, thromboxane come from

Activation of platelets

10

How does rapid release Il-1 happen?

Activation of local sentry macrophages

11

WHy would a mast cell release its histamine?

Trauma/Cold
Immunologic Rxn (IgE)
C3a, C5a
Histamine-releasing factors from neutrophils, monocytes, and platelets
Il-1, activation of Toll receptors

12

Over 90% of serotonin is found...

in enterochromaffin cells in the GI tract

13

What does Histamine/Serotonin do anyway? Unique activities of them individually?

Vasodilation, increased permeability
Stim. of pain/itching
Contraction of smooth muscle
His -- Axonal reflex of flare response
Sero -- Aggregation of platelets

14

Preformed plasma protein pathways all turned on by activated Hageman Factor?

Fibrin Degradation Products
Anaphylaxis (via complement)
Kinin generation
Clot Formation

15

Important roles of Plasmin

1. Cleaves fibrin into fibrin degradation products
2. Cleaves complement components C5 and C3
3. Activates Hageman, kininogens, and itself (amplifys the response)

16

The Kallikrein/Kinin system is important for...

Vascular permeability, contraction of SM, dilation of BV
PAIN

17

Important details on C5a

Chemotactic for PMNs
Neutrophil degranulation
Superoxide production

18

Early inflammation release of arachadonic acid leads to formation of...

Prostaglandins and Leukotrienes

19

Arachadonic Acid exposed to Cyclooxygenase (COX) will form...

Prostaglandins, Prostacyclins, or Thromboxane

20

Arachadonic Acid exposed to lipoxygenase will form...

Leukotrienes
SRS-A

21

Arachadonic Acid derivative formed in platelets

TXA2

22

Arachadonic Acid derivative formed in endothelial cells

PGI2, LTB4

23

Arachadonic Acid derivative formed in Mast Cells

SRS-A's/LTC/LTE
PAF

24

Arachadonic Acid derivative formed in neutrophils

LTB4

25

Arachadonic Acid derivative formed in Macrophages

PGs

26

Effects of PGD2 and PGE2

Produce vasodilation, increased vascuar permeability-, bronchoconstriction, hyperalgesia

27

Effects of PGF2a

Vasodilation, Bronchoconstriction

28

Effects of Prostacyclin (PGI2)

Vasodilation, Increased vascular permeability, inhibited PMNs, Inhibits platelet aggregation

29

Effects of Thromboxane A2

Vasoconstriction, Bronchoconstriction, Platelet Aggregation
Antagonizes Prostacyclin

30

What are the Slow Reacting Substances of Anaphylaxis (list the members)

LTC4, LTD4, LTE4

31

What are the Slow Reacting Substances of Anaphylaxis (conceptually)

Mediators of responses to severe allergy: constriction of smooth muscle (vaso+broncho) and increased vascular permeability (vascular shock)

32

Effects of LTB4

Primarily from PMNs, mediated their responses
Chemotaxis + Aggregation/Degranulation

33

Effects of Platelet Activating Factor

Induces platelet aggregation and degranulation
Enhances the release of histamine and serotonin
Increased vascular permeability
Increases leukocyte adhesion, chemotaxis

34

Effects of Lipoxins

Anti-inflammatory, Blockage of SRS-A receptor, promotes phagocytosis and cellular killing

35

Early mediators of platelet aggregation...

PAF, Thromboxane A2 from mast cells + platelets

36

Early mediators of vascular permeability...

SRS-As from mast cells, platelets

37

Middle mediators of Chemotaxis...

LT B4, SRS-A, PAF from Mast Cells and PMNs

38

Middle mediators of vascular permeability

SRS-A, LTB4 from PMNs

39

Late mediators of vasodilation, vascular permeability...

SRS-A from PMNs, PGs from Macrophages

40

What are interleukins?

Cytokines that communicate between different types of leukocytes, particularly mono and lymphs

41

What is IL-2

T cell growth factor
Receptor induced by Il-1 from macrophages, Il2 production

42

Which interleukins have systemic effects?

IL1, TNFa, IL6

43

Primarily PMN chemokine?

IL8

44

Role of IFNg in inflammation?

from T and NK, induces expression of MHC I and II, activates phagocytes, inhibits TH2, enhances leukocyte-endothelial adherence.

45

M-CSF is made by ____. Its role is....

Macrophages
promote monocyte precursor growth

46

G-CSF is made by ____. Its role is...

Mphages. Promote granulocyte prolif.

47

GM-CSF is made by ______. Its role is...

T cells, Mphages, Fibroblasts, endothelial cells
Promotes granulocyte precursors

48

TGFbeta is a potent stimulator of....

Fibrinogenesis and Scar Tissue

49

IL1, TNF, IL6. Where do they come from? What do they do?

From -- Mphages + inflam cells
Do -- Fever, Acute Phase Proteins, Septic Shock

50

Il2, Il12. Where do they come from? What do they do?

From - Lymphocytes
Do -- Promote lymphocyte proliferation

51

IFNg. Where do they come from? What do they do?

From -- Lymphocytes
Do -- MHC/Adhesion Molecule Expression
Activation of mp in granuloma formation

52

IL8. Where do they come from? What do they do?

From -- Activated inflamm. cells
Do -- Neutrophil adhesion and migration

53

MCP-1. Where do they come from? What do they do?

From -- Activated Inflamm. cells
Do -- Monocyte migration

54

RANTES, MCP-3. Where do they come from? What do they do?

From -- Inflamm. Cells
Do -- Macrophages + Mast Cells for eosinophil migration

55

GM-CSF. Where do they come from? What do they do?

From -- Inflam. cell prolif and differentiation
Do -- Expression of adhesion molecules, Cytokines

56

Still even a little shakey on all of this?

Look at the summary on the last page

57

IL receptors assocaited w/ Jak/Stat

2, 4, 7, 9, 15

58

Type of mediator seen in minutes? minutes->hours? hours->days? Days->weeks?

Minutes -- Preformed
Minutes/Hours -- Plasma-Derived
Hours/Days -- AA Metabolites
Days/Weeks -- Cytokines, ILs, Chemokines, GFs

59

Difference between Aspirin and NSAIDS

Aspirin -- Irreversible Cox inhibition