Flashcards in Types of Inflammation Deck (38):
Important roles of inflammation
Delivery of phagocytes and proteins from blood to tissue, set up responses for healing and regeneration, enhanced macrophage activation for antigen presentation
Role of Mast cells in inflammation
Release histamine on tissue injury
Role of Tissue macrophages in inflammation
Release cytokines, particularly in response to infectious agents
Role of endothelial cells in inflammation
Mediate responses between tissue and blood supply
Role of parenchymal cells in inflammation
signal inflammation on death or injury
Role of platelets in inflammation
Initiate inflammatory signals on activation
Review the timeline
Steps in local vascular events
1. Activation of platelets
2. Vasodilation and increased blood flow
4. Increased vascular permeability
Causes of increase vascular permeability
Inc. hydrostatic pressure, Increased colloid osmotic forces, Activation of endothelial cells, Increased pinocytosis
How to distinguish a transudate from an exudate
T -- SG under 1.012, under 3% protein, minimal particulate matter
E -- SG over 1.020, over 3 percent protein, lots of particulate.
Source of immediate transient state of permeability of vessels? How to stop it?
Histamine, Bradykinin, Leukotrienes, Sub P
Block w/ anti-histamines
Causes of delayed prolonged leakage?
Prostaglandins and Cytokine production
In a clear way, mediators of increased vascular permeability, early, amplification, and maintenence
Early -- Histamine, Serotonin
Amplification -- Kinin, C3a, C5a (anaphylatoxins)
Maintenance -- PGs and Interleukins
Timeline for neutrophil and macrophage migration?
Neutrophils days 0-1
Steps in the emigration of leukocytes
What happens in margination
As blood slows, cells move to periphery of the vessel
Weak adhesion is caused by interactions between...
Selectins and surface carbohydrates
Firm adherance is facilitated by binding of...
endotheliam CAMS with integrins of invading cells
Examples of selectins
P-selectin, E selectin
Examples of Integrins used in binding
ICAM-LFA1 Integrin (PMN)
VCAM - VLA4 integrin (monocyte)
Which adhesion molecules facilitate adhesion
PECAM-1 or CD31
____ and ____ are major chemotactic factors for neutrophils
Leukotriene B4 and IL-8
In inflamm response -- what time should you see PMNs
In inflamm response -- what time should you see Mphages.
In inflamm response -- what time should you see lymphocytes?
Chronic inflammation occurs when..
Persistence of infection
Inability to neutralize a toxin
Continuos physical injury
Persistence of an immune response
E selectin expression is stimulated by ____ for what time frame?
Peaks at 4 hours, reversed by 24
VCAM expression is enhanced by...
IL-1, TNF, GM-CSF
What is serous inflammation?
Extracellular fluid from blood serum associated with mild injury
Example -- Blister
Difference between fibrinous and fibrosis
Fibrinous -- Fibrin
Fibrosis -- Collagen
In a granuloma, macrophages activate T cells with...
IL1, IL12, antigen presentation
In a granuloma, what do activated TH1 cells do?
Secrete IFNg, activate macrophages, epithelioid macrophages, multinucleated giant cells
What are epithelioid macrophages?
large activated mps, increased phagocytosis, metabolism, and lysosomal enzymes.
Two types of giant cells and how to distinguish
Langerhans -- nuc at periphery, immune type granulomas
Foreign body -- nuc at center of cell, response to foreign.
What are ulcers?
Local excavation/defect in mucosal surface produced by sloughing of necrotic epithelium
Differences seen in acute and chronic ulcers?
Acute -- PMNs, congested BV at margins
Chronic -- Lymphocytes, mps, fibrous connective tissue at base
Difference between erosions and ulcers
Erosions -- Superficial only, usually only acute/subacu.
Ulcers -- Loss of mucosal layers to muscularis, ALWAYS assocaited with surrounding chronic inflamm. fibrosis