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Flashcards in Types of Inflammation Deck (38):
1

Important roles of inflammation

Delivery of phagocytes and proteins from blood to tissue, set up responses for healing and regeneration, enhanced macrophage activation for antigen presentation

2

Role of Mast cells in inflammation

Release histamine on tissue injury

3

Role of Tissue macrophages in inflammation

Release cytokines, particularly in response to infectious agents

4

Role of endothelial cells in inflammation

Mediate responses between tissue and blood supply

5

Role of parenchymal cells in inflammation

signal inflammation on death or injury

6

Role of platelets in inflammation

Initiate inflammatory signals on activation

7

Review the timeline

Page 3

8

Steps in local vascular events

1. Activation of platelets
2. Vasodilation and increased blood flow
3. Stasis
4. Increased vascular permeability

9

Causes of increase vascular permeability

Inc. hydrostatic pressure, Increased colloid osmotic forces, Activation of endothelial cells, Increased pinocytosis

10

How to distinguish a transudate from an exudate

T -- SG under 1.012, under 3% protein, minimal particulate matter
E -- SG over 1.020, over 3 percent protein, lots of particulate.

11

Source of immediate transient state of permeability of vessels? How to stop it?

Histamine, Bradykinin, Leukotrienes, Sub P
Block w/ anti-histamines

12

Causes of delayed prolonged leakage?

Prostaglandins and Cytokine production

13

In a clear way, mediators of increased vascular permeability, early, amplification, and maintenence

Early -- Histamine, Serotonin
Amplification -- Kinin, C3a, C5a (anaphylatoxins)
Maintenance -- PGs and Interleukins

14

Timeline for neutrophil and macrophage migration?

Neutrophils days 0-1
Macrophages afterward

15

Steps in the emigration of leukocytes

Margination
Pavement/Adhesion
Transmigration
Chemotaxis

16

What happens in margination

As blood slows, cells move to periphery of the vessel

17

Weak adhesion is caused by interactions between...

Selectins and surface carbohydrates

18

Firm adherance is facilitated by binding of...

endotheliam CAMS with integrins of invading cells

19

Examples of selectins

P-selectin, E selectin

20

Examples of Integrins used in binding

ICAM-LFA1 Integrin (PMN)
VCAM - VLA4 integrin (monocyte)

21

Which adhesion molecules facilitate adhesion

PECAM-1 or CD31

22

____ and ____ are major chemotactic factors for neutrophils

Leukotriene B4 and IL-8

23

In inflamm response -- what time should you see PMNs

12-72 hours

24

In inflamm response -- what time should you see Mphages.

48+ hours

25

In inflamm response -- what time should you see lymphocytes?

72+ hours

26

Chronic inflammation occurs when..

Persistence of infection
Inability to neutralize a toxin
Continuos physical injury
Persistence of an immune response

27

E selectin expression is stimulated by ____ for what time frame?

IL-1
Peaks at 4 hours, reversed by 24

28

VCAM expression is enhanced by...

IL-1, TNF, GM-CSF

29

What is serous inflammation?

Extracellular fluid from blood serum associated with mild injury
Example -- Blister

30

Difference between fibrinous and fibrosis

Fibrinous -- Fibrin
Fibrosis -- Collagen

31

In a granuloma, macrophages activate T cells with...

IL1, IL12, antigen presentation

32

In a granuloma, what do activated TH1 cells do?

Secrete IFNg, activate macrophages, epithelioid macrophages, multinucleated giant cells

33

What are epithelioid macrophages?

large activated mps, increased phagocytosis, metabolism, and lysosomal enzymes.

34

Two types of giant cells and how to distinguish

Langerhans -- nuc at periphery, immune type granulomas
Foreign body -- nuc at center of cell, response to foreign.

35

What are ulcers?

Local excavation/defect in mucosal surface produced by sloughing of necrotic epithelium

36

Differences seen in acute and chronic ulcers?

Acute -- PMNs, congested BV at margins
Chronic -- Lymphocytes, mps, fibrous connective tissue at base

37

Difference between erosions and ulcers

Erosions -- Superficial only, usually only acute/subacu.
Ulcers -- Loss of mucosal layers to muscularis, ALWAYS assocaited with surrounding chronic inflamm. fibrosis

38

Which types of inflammation are primarily acute? chronic? both?

Acute -- Serous, Suppurative
Chronic -- Lymphocytic, Granulomatous
Both -- Fibrinous