Neoplasia II/III Flashcards Preview

Pathology -- Gen Path > Neoplasia II/III > Flashcards

Flashcards in Neoplasia II/III Deck (25):
1

Markers of clonality include...

methylation patterns of specific genes or indicators of identical gene rearrangements (Ig or T cell isotypes)

2

Four classes of genes that are targets for alterations that cause autonomous proliferation of cells

Growth promoting proto-oncogenes
growth-inhibiting tumor suppressor genes
Genes that regulate apoptosis
Genes involved in DNA repair

3

What is transformation?

Attainment of the capacity for autonomous growth
in vitro - can grow without GFs and make colonies that override contact inhibition

4

What is tumor progression?

Growth of a transformed cell from a single cell to a clone of cells to a population with the ability to invade and metastisize

5

Seven fundamental changes in cell physiology that determine malignant phenotype?

1. Self sufficiency in growth signals
2. Insensitivity to growth-inhibitory signals
3. Evasion of apoptosis
4. Defects in DNA repair
5. Limitless replicative potential
6. Sustained angiogenesis
7. Ability to invade and metastasize

6

Progression through the cell cycle is regulated by...

Cyclins and cyclin dependent kinases

7

What does Cyclin D do?

Activates CDK, which P-ates RB, which is an ON-OFF for the cell cycle

8

What does RB do?

Acts as break to inhibit cells from going from G0/G1 into S phase. P-ation of RB causes dissociation of RB from E2F and permits replication.

9

_____ regulates mitotic prophase
_____ regulates nuclear division

Cyclin A/CDK2
Cyclin B/CDK1

10

How does p53 work?

Activates p21 to inhibit replication of damaged cells. If cell can't be repaired, triggers apoptosis.

11

When can the cell cycle stop damaged cell duplication

G1/S
G2/M

12

G1/S multiplication checkpoint occurs through

p53

13

Mitogenic stimulation in cancer is often associated with...

Constitutively active ras, HER2/neu

14

Most important signal transducing protein to remember?

Ras.
Most common abnormality of dominant oncogenes.
Colon, Pancreas, Thyroid especially

15

Philadelphia Chromosome (CML) is associated with what mutation?

c-abl. Increases in tyrosine kinase activity

16

Most important nuclear regulatory protein to remember? What does it do?

Myc
Immediate early growth response genes.
Assoc. with Burkitt's and neuroblastoma

17

p53 is especially associated with which cancers?

Colon, breast, lung

18

How does Neurofibromatosis happen

NF-1 enhanced Ras-GTPase to downregulate Ras

19

overexpression of _____ is a common way that cancers may try to turn off apoptosis

bcl-2

20

Four important tumor repair gene mutations..

Herditary non-polyposis cancer syndrome
Xeroderma pigmentosum
ataxia-telangiectasia/Bloom Syndrome/Fanconi anemia
BRCA1 and 2

21

Name the two families of CDK inhibitors

CIP/KIP -- they have p21
INK4/ARF -- act on CDK4/CycD

22

The G2/M checkpoint is especially important in....

cells exposed to ionizing radiation

23

Two main mechanisms for altered expression of oncogenes following translocation

1. Swapping of gene regulatory elements to allow transcription of a quiescent gene
2. Formation of abnormal chimeric proteins

24

Chromosomal changes are especially associated with what kind of cancers?

Leukemias

25

How might epigenetic changes alter cancer development

DNA methylation silences gene expression, demethylation expresses normally silenced genes