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Flashcards in ch 10 quiz Deck (26):
1

Which of the following is NOT a major function of skeletal muscle?
a. maintaining body temperature
b. lining hollow organs
c. maintaining posture
d. storing nutrient reserves

b. lining hollow organs

2

Which activity would be more likely to create an oxygen debt: swimming laps or lifting weights?
a. swimming laps
b. lifting weights
c. both A and B
d. neither A nor B

b. lifting weights

3

How would a drug that blocks acetylcholine release affect muscle contraction?
a. Contraction would be prevented.
b. Contraction would be slowed.
c. The speed of contraction would increase.
d. The strength of contraction would increase.

a. Contraction would be prevented

4

What statement(s) below are FALSE with regard to the contraction of skeletal muscle?
a. Through eccentric contractions, the muscle lengthens.
b. Through concentric contractions, the muscle does not change length.
c. Through isometric contraction, the muscle remains the same length.
d. A and C are correct.

b. Through concentric contractions, the muscle does not change length

5

Which of the following describe the characteristics of slow muscle fibers?
a. small diameter, rich in myoglobin, and high glycogen reserve
b. large diameter, very vascular, and multiple mitochondria
c. small diameter, rich in myoglobin, and very vascular
d. large diameter, high glycogen reserve, and lack significant myoglobin

c. small diameter, rich in myoglobin, and very vascular

6

How would severing the tendon attached to a muscle affect the muscle’s ability to move a body part?
a. Uncontrolled movement would result from a severed tendon.
b. Movement would be greatly exaggerated with no tendon.
c. No movement is possible without a muscle to bone connection.
d. Limited movement would result.

c. No movement is possible without a muscle to bone connection

7

Which of the following describes the neuromuscular junction?
a. the surface containing membrane receptors that bind acetylcholine
b. special intercellular connection between axon branches and a skeletal muscle fiber
c. the link between generation of an action potential and the start of muscle contraction
d. a propagated change in membrane potential that travels the length of an axon

b. special intercellular connection between axon branches and a skeletal muscle fiber

8

How are epimysium, perimysium, and endomysium interrelated?
a. They are connective tissues and blend with tendons to provide firm attachments to bone.
b. All three contain capillaries and nerves.
c. All three contain satellite cells that function in the repair of muscle tissue.
d. None of the above are correct

a. They are connective tissues and blend with tendons to provide firm attachments to bone.

9

With excitation–contraction coupling,
a. a motor neuron releases ACh, which allows an electrical event to be transferred to the muscular system.
b. a motor neuron releases ACh, and it binds to receptors on the motor end plate of a muscle fascicle.
c. the myosin cross-bridge will remain attached to actin as ATP depletion occurs.
d. ACh release reveals actin’s binding site for myosin to bind

a. a motor neuron releases ACh, which allows an electrical event to be transferred to the muscular system.

10

A motor unit is/are _____. You would need a small motor unit to control movement of the fingers _____.
a. the resting tension in a muscle; so it would not involve muscle fibers of adjoining fingers
b. muscle fibers controlled by a single motor neuron; because you need precise control
c. the addition of one twitch to another; because you need twitches to cover a large area
d. None of the above are correct.

b. muscle fibers controlled by a single motor neuron; because you need precise control

11

Myofibrils are organized into repeating subunits called _____.
a. T tubules
b. Z lines
c. sarcomeres
d. sarcoplasmic reticulum

c. sarcomeres

12

Why does skeletal muscle appear striated when viewed through a microscope?
a. Z lines and myosin filaments align within a muscle fiber.
b. Glycogen reserves are linearly arranged.
c. Capillaries regularly intersect the myofibers.
d. Actin filaments repel stain, appearing banded.

a. Z lines and myosin filaments align within a muscle fiber.

13

The A band comprises which of the following subunits?
a. I band, terminal cisternae, and the Z line
b. M line, H band, and the zone of overlap
c. thin filaments, titin, and the Z line
d. sarcoplasmic reticulum, and T tubules

b. M line, H band, and the zone of overlap

14

Where would you expect the greatest concentration of Ca2+ in resting skeletal muscle to be?
a. in T tubules
b. surrounding the mitochondria
c. within sarcomeres
d. in cisternae of the sarcoplasmic reticulum

d. in cisternae of the sarcoplasmic reticulum

15

In what ways does the appearance of a sarcomere change during contraction of a skeletal muscle fiber?
a. zones of overlap get larger; H band gets wider; A bands shorten
b. titin molecules are relaxed; M line disappears
c. Z lines move closer together; I bands and H bands get smaller
d. None of the above are correct.

c. Z lines move closer together; I bands and H bands get smaller

16

_____ predominate in the large leg muscles of someone who excels at endurance activities, such as cycling. This is because _____.
a. Fast fibers; they have large glycogen reserves
b. Slow fibers; they have extensive capillary networks and much myoglobin
c. Nonvascular fibers; they use both aerobic and anaerobic metabolism
d. Intermediate fibers; they have more neuromuscular junctions

b. Slow fibers; they have extensive capillary networks and much myoglobin

17

What is the mechanism that is primarily responsible for ATP production at peak levels of activity?
a. the reaction between ADP and creatine
b. aerobic metabolism in mitochondria
c. glycolysis in the cytoplasm
d. both B and C

c. glycolysis in the cytoplasm

18

Why does a muscle that has been overstretched produce less tension?
a. Few cross-bridges form, causing weak contraction.
b. Cross-bridges cannot be formed.
c. Actin and myosin cease to be stimulated by acetylcholine.
d. The increased amount of Ca2+ in the sarcoplasm causes the muscle to relax completely.

a. Few cross-bridges form, causing weak contraction.

19

What would you expect to happen to a resting skeletal muscle if the sarcolemma suddenly became very permeable to Ca2+?
a. increased strength of contraction
b. decreased cross-bridge
c. decreased ability to relax
d. both A and C

d. both A and C

20

Predict what would happen to muscles if a pesticide that inhibits acetylcholinesterase were present at the motor end plate.
a. Muscle would lose strength.
b. Muscle would be unable to contract.
c. Acetylcholine receptors would be inactivated in the motor end plate.
d. Muscle would contract repeatedly

d. Muscle would contract repeatedly

21

What feature of cardiac muscle tissue allows the heart to act as a functional syncytium?
a. striations
b. desmosomes
c. gap junctions
d. short T tubules without triads

c. gap junctions

22

Smooth muscle can contract over a wider range of resting lengths than skeletal muscle can. Why?
a. Smooth muscle sarcomeres are longer.
b. Actin and myosin filament arrangement is less organized in smooth muscle.
c. Smooth muscle cells are shorter.
d. Smooth muscle actin is longer.

b. Actin and myosin filament arrangement is less organized in smooth muscle

23

What structural characteristics distinguish cardiac muscle tissue from skeletal muscle tissue? Cardiac muscle cells _____.
a. are larger and usually have one nucleus
b. have intercalated discs, short T tubules, and no triads
c. are dependent on anaerobic metabolism
d. contact each other at tight junctions

b. have intercalated discs, short T tubules, and no triads

24

Two cardiologists are talking about functional characteristics of cardiac muscle tissue. Which of the following descriptions would they use?
a. special gap junctions, intrinsic conduction system allows contraction without neural stimulation
b. spindle-shaped, nonstriated, thick filaments scattered, involuntary
c. striated tissue with multiple mitochondria and a multinucleated condition syncytium
d. Cardiologists would not use any of this terminology.

a. special gap junctions, intrinsic conduction system allows contraction without neural stimulation

25

Why are cardiac and smooth muscle contractions more affected by changes in extracellular Ca2+ than skeletal muscle contractions?
a. Extracellular Ca2+ inhibits actin.
b. Cross-bridges are formed only within the sarcomeres of cardiac muscle.
c. Most of the calcium for contractions comes from SR stores.
d. Most of the calcium for contractions comes from extracellular fluid

d. Most of the calcium for contractions comes from extracellular fluid.

26

Why would a sprinter experience muscle fatigue before a marathon runner?
a. Marathon running uses ATP for only a short time, while sprinting uses ATP indefinitely.
b. Marathon runners’ muscles depend on stored glycogen; therefore, they do not fatigue.
c. Sprinting involves anaerobic endurance, whereas running a marathon depends more upon availability of substrates for aerobic respiration.
d. None of the above are correct.

c. Sprinting involves anaerobic endurance, whereas running a marathon depends more upon availability of substrates for aerobic respiration.