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Flashcards in chapter 12 test Deck (47):
1

afferent division

carries sensory info from PNS to CNS

2

efferent division

carries motor commands from CNS t PNS

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somatic nervous system

controls voluntary and involuntary muscle skeletal contractions (efferent)

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autonomic nervous system (ANS)

controls subconscious actions, contractions of smooth muscle and cardiac muscle, and glanduar secretions

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sympathetic division (ANS)

stimulating effect

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parasympathetic (ANS)

relaxing effect

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perikaryon

neuron cytoplasm

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cytoskeleton

neurofilaments and neurotubules

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neurofibrils

bundles of neurofilaments that provide support for dendrites and axon

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NISSL BODIES

dense areas of RER and ribosomes that make neural tissue appear gray

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axoplasm

cytoplasm of axon

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axolemma

specialized cell membrane tht covers the axoplasm

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anaxonic neurons

small, all cell processes look alike, found in brain and sense organs

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bipolar neurons

smal, 1 dendrite, 1 axon, found in special sensory organs (sight, mell, hearing)

15

unipolar neurons

pseudounipolar neurons, very long axons w fused dendrite and axon and cell body off to the side, found in sensory neurons of PNS

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multipolar neurons

long axons, multiple dendrites and 1 axon, common in the CNS and includes all skeletal muscle motor neurons

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sensory neurons

affernt neurons of the PNS, unipolar, monitor internal environment (visceral sensory neurons) and external environment (somatic sensory neurons)

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interceptors

sensory receptor that monitors internal systems (digestive, respiratory, cardiovascular, urinary, reproductive) and internal senses (taste, deep pressure, and pain)

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exteroceptors

sensory receptors for external senses (touch, temp, pressure) and distance senses (sight, smell, and hearing)

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proprioceptors

sensory receptor that monitors position and movement

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motor neuron

efferent neuron of PNS, part of somatic nervous sys, autonomic nervous sys, uses 2 groups of efferent axons-preganglionic and postgangliotic fibers

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interneurons

association neurons located in brain, spinal cord, and autonomic ganglia, responsible for dist of sensory info and motor coordination, involved in memory, planning , and learning

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4 types of neuroglia

ependymal cells, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia

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ependymal cells

cells w highly branched process, contact neuroglia directly, form epithelium (ependyma), line central canal of spinal cord and ventricles of the brain, secretes cerebral spinal fluid

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astrocytes

large cell bodies w many processes, maintain blood brain barrier

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oligodendocytes

smaller cell bodies w fewer processes, myelinate CNS axons, provide structural framework

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microglia

migrate through neural tissue cleaning up debris, wase products, and pathogens

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satellite cells

amphicytes, surround ganglia and reg. environment around neuron

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Schwann cells

neurilemma cells, form myelin sheath

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5 main membrane processes

1. resting potential 2. graded potential 3. action potential 4.synaptic activity 5. information processing

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passive channels

leak channels, always open, permeability changes w conditions

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4 steps in generation of action potentials

1. depolariztion to threashold
2. activation of Na channels
3. inactivation of Na channels and activation of K channels
4. return to normal permeability

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Type A fibers

myelinated, large diameter, high speed, carry info to/from CNS, position, touch, balance, and motor impulses

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Type B fibers

myelinated, med diameter, medium speed, sensory info, periphreral effectors

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Type C fibers

unmyelinated, small diameter, slow speed, involuntary muscle, gland control

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excitatory neurotransmitters

cause depolarization and promote action potentials

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inhibitory neurotransmitters

cause hyperpolarization andsuppress action potentials

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norepinephrine

released by adrenergic synopses, excitatory and depolarizing effect, fight or flight

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dopamine

CNS neurotransmitter, may be ecitatory or inhibitory, involed in parkinsons and cocaine use

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serotonin

CNS neurotransmitter, efects attention and emotional states, converts to melatonin in the brain

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GABA

always inhibitory, not well understood

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neuromodulators

other chem released by synaptic terminals, effects are slower to appear and long term

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neuropeptides

neuromodulators that bind to receptors and activate enzymes

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opiods

neuromodulators that bind to same receptors as morphine or opium and releeive pain

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4 classes of opioids

1. endorphins
2. enkephalins
3. endomorphine
4. dynorphins

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excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP)

graded depolarization of postsynaptic membrane

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inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP)

graded hyperpolarization of postsynaptic membrane