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Flashcards in ch 12 quiz Deck (36):
1

Which of the following is (are) correct concerning structural classifications of neurons?

a. Multipolar neurons control skeletal muscles.
b. Bipolar neurons function in the senses of hearing, smell, and vision.
c. Anaxonic neurons have indistinguishable axons and dendrites.
d. All of the above statements
are correct.

d. All of the above statements
are correct.

2

The two functional divisions of the peripheral nervous system are the afferent and efferent divisions. What are their respective functions?

a. control of the central nervous system; control of the peripheral nervous system
b. control of neurons; control of neuroglia
c. sensory input to the CNS; carries motor commands to muscles or glands
d. carries motor commands to muscles or glands; sensory input to the CNS

c. sensory input to the CNS; carries motor commands to muscles or glands

3

A unipolar neuron is a _______ that has its cell body in the ________.

a. motor neuron; ventral root ganglia
b. sensory neuron; ventral root ganglia
c. motor neuron; dorsal root ganglia
d. sensory neuron; dorsal root ganglia

d. sensory neuron; dorsal root ganglia

4

Damage to somatic motor neurons of the efferent division of the PNS would affect the ability to:

a. learn new facts.
b. stimulate skeletal muscle.
c. experience sensory stimuli.
d. remember past events.

b. stimulate skeletal muscle.

5

The functional classification of neurons that are responsible for integrating sensory information with motor output are called ______. These neurons are located __________.

a. motor neurons; in the anterior horn of the spinal cord
b. proprioceptors; in skeletal muscles and joints
c. interneurons; almost exclusively in the CNS
d. interoceptors; in the digestive, respiratory, and cardiovascular systems

c. interneurons; almost exclusively in the CNS

6

Which of the CNS neuroglial cells function as phagocytic cells?

a. satellite cells
b. microglia
c. oligodendrocytes
d. astrocytes

b. microglia

7

Neuroglia of the PNS include __ and __, and their respective functions are __ and __.

a. astrocytes; oligodendrocytes; guide axon regeneration; myelinate axons
b. ependymal cells; Schwann cells; form cerebrospinal fluid; form myelin sheath
c. satellite cells; Schwann cells; regulate O2, CO2, nutrient and transmitter levels; myelinate axons
d. microglia; ependymal cells; regulate environment around neurons; form cerebrospinal fluid

c. satellite cells; Schwann cells; regulate O2, CO2, nutrient and transmitter levels; myelinate axons

8

Which type of neuroglia would be found lining the hollow regions of the CNS?

a. astrocytes
b. microglia
c. ependymal cells
d. oligodendrocytes

c. ependymal cells

9

Which type of voltage-regulated channels are located around the axon hillock?

a. voltage-regulated potassium channels
b. voltage-regulated calcium channels
c. voltage-regulated chloride channels
d. voltage-regulated sodium channels

d. voltage-regulated sodium channels

10

What effect would decreasing the concentration of extracellular potassium ions have on the transmembrane potential of a neuron?

a. repolarization
b. hypopolarization
c. decreased transmembrane potential
d. hyperpolarization

d. hyperpolarization

11

The gated channels that respond to physical distortion of the membrane surface are called ________. These channels are important in ________.

a. chemically gated channels; dendrites
b. mechanically gated channels; sensory receptors
c. voltage-gated channels; axons of multipolar and unipolar neurons
d. passive channels; areas where the channels must remain open

b. mechanically gated channels; sensory receptors

12

Which of these is NOT a site at which acetylcholine is released at a synapse?

a. at neuromuscular junctions with skeletal muscles
b. at ganglionic neuron-to-neuron synapses in the ANS
c. sometimes at postganglionic synapses in the sympathetic division of the ANS
d. none of the above

d. none of the above

13

The effects of a neurotransmitter on the postsynaptic membrane depend on:

a. the time involved in calcium influx across the synapse.
b. the rate of enzyme inhibition.
c. the properties of the release of neurotransmitter.
d. the type of receptor.

d. the type of receptor

14

What is the primary distinction between chemical and electrical synapses? Which type is more rare?

a. electrical synapses involve a neurotransmitter; chemical synapses
b. electrical synapses involve direct connection between cells; electrical synapses
c. chemical synapses involve direct connection between cells; chemical synapses
d. electrical synapses always use ACh; both are equally abundant

b. electrical synapses involve direct connection between cells; electrical synapses

15

What effect would blocking voltage-regulated calcium channels at a cholinergic synapse have on synaptic communication?

a. Communication would cease.
b. Communication would be enhanced.
c. Communication would be misdirected.
d. Communication would continue as before.

a. Communication would cease

16

Which structure of a neuron is capable of propagating an electrical impulse?

a. dendrite
b. axon
c. cell body
d. perikaryon

b. axon

17

Enhancing the effects of the neurotransmitter ________ has allowed pharmaceutical companies to produce medications that decrease anxiety.

a. serotonin
b. norepinephrine
c. acetylcholine
d. GABA

d. GABA

18

Norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin are all members of which category of neurotransmitter?

a. hormones
b. biogenic amines
c. amino acids
d. neuropeptides

b. biogenic amines

19

A person you know has experienced sleep problems and prolonged depression. Which neurotransmitter may be in short supply?

a. dopamine
b. any of the opioids
c. acetylcholine
d. serotonin

d. serotonin

20

The relationship between a neurotransmitter, such as NE and cAMP, is that they are _____, which is enhanced by a “link” called a ______.

a. both amino acids; carboxyl group
b. 1st messenger and 2nd messenger; G protein
c. neurotransmitters; 2nd messenger
d. EPSP and IPSP; 1st messenger

b. 1st messenger and 2nd messenger; G protein

21

Excitatory neurotransmitters cause ______, and inhibitory neurotransmitters _____.

a. repolarization; return to resting potential
b. suppression of generation of action potentials; promote generation of action potentials
c. synaptic fatigue; cause synaptic delay
d. depolarization; cause hyperpolarization

d. depolarization; cause hyperpolarization

22

One axon propagates action potentials at 50 meters per second; another carries them at 1 meter per second. Which axon is myelinated?

a. axon that propagates at 50 meters per second
b. axon that propagates at 1 meter per second

a. axon that propagates at 50 meters per second

23

Which of the choices below correctly lists the steps of an action potential?

a. resting potential  absolute refractory period  relative refractory period
b. all-or-none principle  stimulus triggers action potential  stimulus does not trigger action potential
c. depolarization to threshold  activation of sodium channels and depolarization  inactivation of sodium channels and activation of potassium channels  return to normal permeability
d. none of the above

c. depolarization to threshold  activation of sodium channels and depolarization  inactivation of sodium channels and activation of potassium channels  return to normal permeability

24

Which of the following is true concerning neuromodulators?

a. have long-term effects
b. act immediately without intermediate steps
c. affect neither postsynaptic nor presynaptic membrane
d. none of the above

a. have long-term effects

25

Which of the following statements is (are) true with regard to saltatory propagation?

a. Myelinated areas of the axon increase propagation.
b. Only nodes along a myelinated axon can respond to a depolarizing stimulus.
c. Continuous propagation uses less energy, and fewer sodium ions must be pumped out.
d. A and B are correct.

d. A and B are correct

26

In what ways are temporal and spatial summation the same?

a. Both require a rapid succession of stimuli at a single synapse.
b. Both are methods by which individual EPSPs combine to result in an action potential.
c. Both occur when simultaneous stimuli are applied at different locations, causing a cumulative effect on transmembrane potential.
d. All of the above are correct.

b. Both are methods by which individual EPSPs combine to result in an action potential

27

The basic functional unit of the nervous system is which of the following?
A. Neuroglia
B. Receptor
C. Neurotransmitter
D. Neuron
E. Neuragia

D. Neuron

28

What is the name of the supporting cells that separate and protect the nervous system cells?
A. Neuroglia
B. Receptor
C. Neurotransmitter
D. Neuron
E. Neuroglia

A. Neuroglia

29

This area of the nervous system contains the brain and spinal cord?
A. peripheral
B. Efferent
C. Central
D. Afferent
E. Motor

C. central

30

The peripheral nervous system contains what?
A. brain and spinal cord
B. Cranial and spinal neres
C. afferent only
D. efferent only
E. autonomic only

B. Cranial and spinal nerves

31

Which division of the nervous system is most directly tied to sensory information?
A. efferent
B. sensory
C. visceral
D. afferent
E. none of the above

D. afferent

32

What is the resting potential charge of a nerve cell?
A. -90
B. -55
C. -70
D. +30
E. 0

C. -70

33

In the all or nothing principal which of the following charges would result in an action potential?
A. -65
B. -70
C. -90
D. -50
E. -120

D. -50

34

With regard to action potential propagation, which of the following statements is true?
A. Action potential begin by sodium gates closing and potassium gates opening.
B. Action potentials travel down the nerve cells by depolarization of the membrane to below -55.
C. Action potentials begin at the dendrites of the cell body and travel down to the next cell.
D. Action potentials occur when a nerve is at -90mV.
E. None of the above is true

B. Action potentials travel down the nerve cells by depolarization of the membrane to below -55.

35

An action potential moving down the axon in a jumping fashion is termed what?
A. saltatory
B. station to station
C. continuous
D. localized
E. none of the above

A. saltatory

36

What is the most common neurotransmitter in the human body?
A. epinepherine
B. dopamine
C. acytelcholine
D. seratonin
E. L-transference

C. acytecholine