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Flashcards in chapter 6 quiz Deck (26):
1

Which of these bones is classified as a flat bone?

a. pollex
b. carpal
c. sphenoid
d. sternum

d. sternum

2

In a sample of bone if the lamellae are not arranged in osteons, then this sample is from the _________.

a. diaphysis
b. medullary cavity of a long bone
c. epiphysis or diaphysis
d. epiphysis

d. epiphysis

3

In osseous tissue which characteristics apply to spongy bone?

a. no osteons, very vascular, bone marrow cavity
b. red bone marrow, canaliculi, no osteons
c. osteons, trabeculae, bone marrow cavity
d. no osteons, lamellae, superficial, and glossy

b. red bone marrow, canaliculi, no osteons

4

A child who enters puberty several years later than the average age is generally taller than average as an adult. Why?

a. Epiphyseal plates fuse during puberty.
b. Bone growth continues throughout childhood.
c. Growth spurts usually occur at the onset of puberty.
d. All of the above are correct.

d. All of the above are correct

5

Why would you expect that all people lose some height as they age?

a. Osteomalacia causes the bones to soften.
b. Osteopenia causes a reduction in bone mass.
c. Osteoporosis causes a reduction in bone mass.
d. Growth hormone is no longer available.

b. Osteopenia causes a reduction in bone mass.

6

During intramembranous ossification, which type of tissue is replaced by bone?

a. hyaline cartilage
b. elastic tissue
c. mesenchymal connective tissue
d. adipose tissue

c. mesenchymal connective tissue

7

In endochondral ossification, what is the original source of osteoblasts?

a. de novo synthesis
b. cells brought via the nutrient artery
c. cells of the inner layer of the perichondrium
d. chondrocytes from the original model

c. cells of the inner layer of the perichondrium

8

How is bone remodeling accomplished?

a. Osteoclasts break down matrix while osteoblasts form new bone matrix.
b. Osteocytes remove and replace calcium salts simultaneously.
c. Osteoclasts are active, while osteoprogenitor cells differentiate rapidly.
d. Osteoblasts are inhibited.

a. Osteoclasts break down matrix while osteoblasts form new bone matrix.

9

Which of the following is true concerning the periosteum?

a. It has a fibrous outer layer that provides firm attachments for tendons.
b. It provides a route for nerves and blood vessels into bone.
c. Its cellular layer actively participates in bone growth and repair.
d. All of the above are correct.

d. All of the above are correct

10

Which of the following describes osteoprogenitor cells?

a. divide to produce daughter cells that differentiate into osteoblasts
b. assist in elevating local concentrations of calcium phosphate
c. multinucleate and derive from same stem cells that produce monocytes
d. maintain protein and mineral content of surrounding matrix

a. divide to produce daughter cells that differentiate into osteoblasts

11

Which of these bony markings would be described as hollowed-out areas usually filled with air?

a. tuberosities
b. condyles
c. processes
d. sinuses

d. sinuses

12

If the activity of osteoblasts exceeds the activity of osteoclasts in a bone, how will the mass of the bone be affected?

a. mass becomes porous
b. mass will not be affected
c. more mass
d. less mass

c. more mass

13

What statement is NOT true with regard to spongy bone?

a. It has red bone marrow.
b. It has yellow bone marrow.
c. It is found where stress comes from many directions.
d. All of the above statements are true.

d. All of the above statements are true.

14

Why is osteoporosis more common in older women than in older men?

a. Testosterone levels decline in postmenopausal women.
b. Older women tend to be more sedentary than older men.
c. Declining estrogen levels lead to decreased calcium deposition.
d. In males, androgens increase with age.

c. Declining estrogen levels lead to decreased calcium deposition.

15

Put the terms in order that describe endochondral ossification:
1. Blood vessels grow into matrix, and cells give rise to osteoblasts that form superficial bone.
2. Chondrocytes enlarge and die leaving struts within the cavity.
3. Remodeling occurs as bone gets thicker and establishes secondary ossification centers.
4. As blood vessels invade the diaphysis, a primary ossification is established.

a. 1, 2, 4, 3
b. 2, 1, 3, 4
c. 2, 1, 4, 3
d. 1, 2, 3, 4

c. 2, 1, 4, 3

16

A seven-year-old child has a pituitary tumor involving the cells that secrete growth hormone (GH), resulting in increased levels of GH. How will this condition affect the child’s growth?

a. The individual will be taller.
b. The individual will be shorter.
c. Growth of the individual will be erratic and slow.
d. The GH will mostly affect the flat bones rather than the long bones.

a. The individual will be taller

17

What effect would increased PTH secretion have on blood calcium levels?

a. higher level of calcium due to osteoclast stimulation
b. lower level of calcium due to osteoclast stimulation
c. lower calcium levels due to calcitriol inhibition
d. no effect on blood calcium; PTH affects calcium in the bones

a. higher level of calcium due to osteoclast stimulation

18

A balance between which two hormones is essential for maintaining calcium homeostasis?

a. calcitriol and parathyroid hormone
b. calcitriol and thyroxine
c. calcitonin and parathyroid hormone
d. growth hormone and sex hormones

c. calcitonin and parathyroid hormone

19

How does calcitonin help lower the calcium ion concentration of blood?

a. by inhibiting osteoclast activity
b. by increasing the rate of calcium excretion at the kidneys
c. by increasing the rate of calcium uptake by intestinal cells
d. both A and B

d. both A and B

20

Which hormone is correctly paired with its function?

a. calcitonin: stimulates osteoclast activity
b. PTH: reduces calcium ion concentration of body fluids
c. calcitriol: inhibits calcium and phosphate ion absorption along the digestive tract
d. thyroxine: stimulates osteoblast activity

d. thyroxine: stimulates osteoblast activity

21

Why would a second fracture to a particular bone be more likely to occur at a different site along that bone than the first fracture?

a. The newly formed bone is slightly thicker and stronger at the original fracture site.
b. During healing of the first fracture, calcium was removed making the site of the second fracture weaker.
c. The person is older when the second fracture occurs, so their bones are weaker.
d. None of the above are correct.

a. The newly formed bone is slightly thicker and stronger at the original fracture site.

22

Which bony marking is correctly paired with its description?

a. fissure: depression
b. fossa: raised protrusion
c. tuberosity: process formed where tendons and ligaments attach
d. spine: process formed for articulation with adjacent bones

c. tuberosity: process formed where tendons and ligaments attach

23

How would the strength of a bone be affected if the ratio of collagen to hydroxyapatite increased?

a. strength increases, flexibility increases
b. strength increases, flexibility decreases
c. strength decreases, flexibility decreases
d. strength decreases, flexibility increases

d. strength decreases, flexibility increases

24

Why does a child who has rickets have difficulty walking?

a. Joints become fused, preventing movement.
b. Bones are brittle and break under body weight.
c. Bones are flexible and bend under body weight.
d. Motor skills are impaired.

c. Bones are flexible and bend under body weight.

25

Why are women usually shorter than men at maturity?

a. Estrogens cause faster epiphyseal plate closure.
b. Androgens cause faster epiphyseal plate closure.
c. Thyroxine increases the rate of osteoblast activity in boys before puberty.
d. Men have more growth hormone.

a. Estrogens cause faster epiphyseal plate closure.

26

What are the functional relationships between compact and spongy bone?

a. Spongy bone resists stress from many directions while compact bone is extremely strong when stressed along the axis of alignment.
b. Spongy bone is strong along its main axis of alignment while compact bone resists stress from many directions.
c. Both spongy and compact bone resist stresses from all angles except a sudden force to the side of the bone.
d. None of the above are correct.

a. Spongy bone resists stress from many directions while compact bone is extremely strong when stressed along the axis of alignment.