Ch. 14 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 14 Deck (40):
1

inadequate intakes of ____ during pregnancy are associated with neural tube defects in the fetus

folate

2

the point at which the ovum becomes fertilized by the perm is

conception

3

substances that lead to birth defects are called

teratogens

4

what is not a benefit of breastfeeding for the infant

the fat in breast milk is difficult for the infant to digest

5

the inner portion of the zygote that implants in the uterine lining is called the _____

blastocyst

6

from the third month of pregnancy until birth the developing human is called a

fetus

7

what is not a reason infants are at higher risk of dehydration than adults

infants have kidneys that produce highly concentrated urine

8

the average weight and height for a healthy newborn in the US is _____ pounds and 18-22 inches long

7 1/2

9

a low birth weight infants is one that weighs less than _____ pounds

5.5

10

what trimester of pregnancy is the fetus the most vulnerable to teratogens

first

11

recommended weight gain during pregnancy is based on the

mother's weight before becoming pregnant

12

what is false regarding calcium needs during pregnancy

the extra demand for calcium during pregnancy has been shown to cause bone demineralization and increase the risk of future fractures

13

during the second and third trimesters, the caloric needs of a pregnant woman increase by 350 to ____ kilocalories per day

450

14

which faty acid is critical to fetal brain and eye development

docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)

15

rich dietary sources of DHA include

mackerel and salmon

16

to avoid _____ contamination during pregnancy, fish consumption should not exceed 12oz a week

mercury

17

it is suggested that ____ percent of neural tube defects could be prevented if all women of childbearing age consumed adequate amounts of folate or folic acid

70

18

at what point during pregnancy is adequate folate most important

during the first four weeks after concption

19

macrocytic anemia results from a deficienc of

vitamin b12

20

what is false regarding vitamin b12 during pregnancy

the RDA for vitamin b12 doubles during pregnancy

21

during pregnancy excess consumption of ______ is associated with birth defects

vitamin a

22

fetal demand for iron is highest during the

third trimester

23

with the exception of ____, most of a pregnant womans nutrient needs can be met by consuming a nutrient dense diet

iron

24

what enhances the absorption of iron

vitamin c

25

the american academy of pediatrics recommends that all breast fed infants be given a ____ supplement to decrease the risk of developing rickets

vitamin d

26

a normal weight woman should gain approximately 25 to _____ pounds during pregnancy

35

27

the primary cause of gastroesophageal reflux and constipation during pregnancy is

relaxation of the smooth muscles

28

what is not associated with gestational diabetes

delivery of a low birth weight infant

29

what is not a symptom of preeclampsia

unexplained and rapid weight loss

30

the only thing that will "cure" eclampsia is

delivery of the infant

31

during pregnancy what amount of alcohol consumption is considered safe

none

32

during the first six months of lactation, the daily caloric needs of the mother increase by _____ calories as compared to prepregnancy levels

330

33

the hormones that prepare the breasts physically for lactation are estrogen and

prolactin

34

the stimulus that is needed for continued and sustained production of breast milk is

infant suckling

35

what hormone is referred to as the "let down" hormone

oxytocin

36

milk that is low in fat and produced first in a nursing session is known as

foremilk

37

what is not a maternal benefit of breastfeeding

shortens the intervals between pregnancies

38

what is not good advice to give to a parent regarding the introduction of solids to their six month old infant

add honey to cereal and fruit to improve infant acceptance of these new foods

39

why are newborn infants given a single injetion of vitamin K

the infants intestinal bacteria are not yet able to synthesize vitamin K

40

why is it strongly recommened that infants not consume honey

honey contains spores of the bacterium Clostridium botulinum