Ch. 9 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 9 Deck (45):
1

the spongy bone that is found within the ends of long bones is called _____

trabecular

2

what is false about trabecular bone

it comprises approximately 80% of the skeleton

3

when does bone growth and modeling start

during fetal development

4

bone _____ refers to the two-step process in which bone tissue is recycled

remodeling

5

bone cells that are responsible for bone resorption are called _____

osteoclasts

6

in addition to proper growth and development, bone remodeling is critical in maintaining _____

blood calcium levels

7

at what age does bone resorption generally begin to occur more rapidly than bone formation

40

8

a T-score between +1 and -1 on a DXA signifies _____

normal bone density

9

Marie is 55 years old and just had her first DXA assessment. The results indicated that she has a T-score of -1.5. What does her T-score indicate?

Compared to a 30 year old healthy adult, she has low bone mass

10

which of the following techniques can assess the risk of fracture

dual energy x-ray absorptiometry

11

what is the most abundant mineral in our body

calcium

12

what is false concerning calcium

99% of calcium is found in the blood and soft tissue

13

what is not a function of calcium

promotes osteoclasts to break down bone

14

the average person will absorb no more than _____mg of calcium at one time

500

15

assuming equal serving sizes, which of the following foods would be the poorest source of calcium

cheddar cheese

16

the process called bone _____ determines the shape of bones

modeling

17

what is not a role that calcitonin plays when blood calcium levels are elevated

calcitonin stimulates the action of vitamin d

18

if a healthy individual were to consume too much calcium from the diet, what is most likely to occur

their gastrointestinal tract would limit the absorption of calcium

19

what organ is responsible for the synthesis of vitamin d

skin liver and kidneys (all of the above)

20

where do humans obtain vitamin d

sunight

21

the primary active form of vitamin d in the human body is _____

calcitriol

22

what is our primary dietary source of vitamin d

milk

23

vitamin d toxicity is associated with _____

supplements

24

calcitonin is a hormone secreted b the _____ gland

thyroid

25

individuals who have diseases that result in the malabsorption of _____ are at risk for a vitamin d deficiency

fat

26

insufficient vitamin d during adulthood is associated with _____

osteomalacia

27

what factor can not inhibit the synthesis of vitamin d

fair skin

28

vitamin K serves as a _____ to various enzyes involved in the coagulation of blood

coenzyme

29

newborn infants receive a single injection of vitamin k at birth due to the fact that _____

newborns do not have enough bacteria in their small intestine to make vitamin k

30

vitamin k's primary role in the body is _____

blood clotting

31

in addition to dietary sources, vitamin K is produced in our _____

large intestine

32

formed in our bones, hydroxyapatite crystals are mineral complexes comprised of calcium and _____

phsphorus

33

what food is high in phosphorus

meat

34

when blood calcium levels fall, what does not occur

PTH and vitamin d stimulate osteoblasts to break down bone

35

most of the body's phosphorus is stored in _____

the skeleton

36

what food is a good source of magnesium

green leafy vegetables

37

how can we increase our absorption of dietary magnesium

eat a high-protein diet

38

the majority of our body's flouride is stored in _____

the skeleton

39

fluorosis is associated with _____

consuming too much fluoride

40

the individual with the highest risk of developing a viamin d deficiency is an _____

elderly institutionalized adult who consumes no milk and receives little or no sun exposure

41

the majority of the body's magnesium is found in the _____

bones

42

what is a poor source of dietary magnesium

refined grain products

43

the hormone that assists in maintaining blood calcium levels by stimulating the activation of vitamin d is _____

parathyroid hormone (PTH)

44

what factor does not contribute to low bone density in the adult years

early onset of menarche in females

45

phosphorus consumption has increased approximately 10-15% over the past 30 years. this is largely due to the increase consumption of _____

processed foods