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Flashcards in Ch. 3 Deck (52):
1

the pancreatic hormones insulin and _____ are responsible for maintaining blood glucose levels

glucagon

2

appetite is triggered by

environmental cues such as the smell or taste of food

3

which physiological trigger will result in the sensation of hunger

low glucose levels

4

hunger is best described as

a physiological desire to consume food

5

hunger, as opposed to appetite, is best described as

a physiological desire or need to consume food

6

the smallest units of matter that normally cannot be broken down are

atoms

7

the human body is organized into the following structural levels

atoms, molecules, cells, tissues, organs, systems

8

our genetic information, in the form of deoxyribonucleic acid is located in the____

nucleus

9

cell membranes are primarily composed of

phsphoipids

10

the powerhous of the cell that produces most of the at is the

mitochondria

11

the term used to describe the process in which foods are broken down into their component molecules is

digestion

12

what is the cephalic phase

earliest phase of digestion when the brain prepares the body in anticipation of food

13

whtn the stomach of an adult is full, it can expand to hold approximately

4cups of food or water

14

the primary function of mucus in the stomach is to

protect the stomach cells from gastric juices

15

the contents of the stomach when food is present is

very acidic

16

where in you rbody does the majority of the digestion and absorption of food occur

small intestine

17

salivary amylase begins the digestion of ____ in the mouth

carbohydrate

18

what part of gastric juices in the stomach kills bacteria and germs you may have consumed

hydrochloric acid

19

what is chyme

mixture of partially digested food, water, and gastric juices

20

the acidity of the stomach allows for all of the following except

preparing dietary carbohydrates for absorption in the small intestine

21

sodim bicarbonate is secreted by the pancreas and functions to _____

neutralize stomach acid

22

the brush border is located in the ____

small intestin

23

what is the name of the sphincter that separates the stomach from the small intestine

pyloric

24

bile is released into the ____ in response to the ingestion of fat in the diet

small intestine

25

bile is made in the liver and stored in the

gallbladder

26

responding to the presence of protein and fat in our meal, cholecystokinin (CCK) signals the gallbladder to release a substance called ______

bile

27

which organ is responsible for manufacturing and secreting digestive enzymes and bicarbonate

pancreas

28

what is the function of the bicarbonate that is realeased into the duodenum during the process of digestion

to neutralize the acidic chyme

29

immediately after absorbtion, most of the fat soluble nutrients are carried through the _____ circulatory system

lymphatic

30

when blood leaves the small intestine, it is routed directly through the portal vein to the

liver

31

after you eat a meal of french fries, cheeseburger, and a chocolate milk shake, the fat in the meal ultimately causes

bile to be secreted into the small intestine to emulsify the fat

32

the enyme pancreatic amylase continues the digestion of

vitamins

33

the pancreatic hormone _____ and also glucagons, are responsible for maintaining blood glucose levels

insulin

34

collectively, the nerves of the gastrointestinal tract are referred to as

enteric

35

appetite is the psychological desire to eat specific foods, and _____ is the physiological sensation that encourages us to seek out food

hunger

36

the _____ is the region of the brain where physiological signals are translated into message to seek food due to hunger

hypothalamus

37

secreted from many glands of the body, _____ are chemical messengers that trigger a physiological response

hormones

38

the macronutrient with the highest satiety value is

protein

39

the _____ is the smallest unit of matter that exhibits the properties of growth, reproduction, and metabolism

cell

40

tiny units of matter that cannot be broken down by natural means are called

atoms

41

a _____ is a functional grouping of similar cells that are joined together to form functional sheets or chords of cells

tissue

42

tight rings of muscles that control the movement of food through the organs of the gastrointestinal tract are

sphincters

43

the human gi tract is approximately _____ feet long

30

44

mechanical digestion begins in the

mouth

45

carbohydrate digestion begins in the

mouth

46

once food is swallowed, a tiny flap of tissue called the _____ keeps it from entering the trachea

epiglottis

47

the wave like contraction that move food along the gi tract are called

peristalsis

48

the major site of nutrient absorption in the body is the small

intestine

49

the _____ concentrates and stores bile

gallbladder

50

inside each villus of the small intestine are capillaries and a small lymph vessel called a

lacteal

51

a painful sensation in the chest that results from gastric juices seeping back up into the esophagus is called

heartburn

52

the nerves of the gi tract are collectively known as the _____ nervous system

enteric