Ch. 4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 4 Deck (56):
1

what carbohydrate is the end product of photosynthesis

glucose

2

carbohydrates contain

carbon, hydroen ad oxygen

3

a disaccharide is formed by he chemical bonding of

two monosaccharides

4

what is the major monosaccharide found in the body

glucose

5

fructose is also known as

levulose

6

which of the following is a monosaccharide

galactose

7

when fructose and glucose are bonded together, they form ____ sugar

table

8

the term complex carbohydrates refers to

polysaccharides

9

the storage form of glucose in animals found in the liver and skeletal muscle is

glycogen

10

in the body, the major storage sites for glycogen are the muscles and

liver

11

which of the following enzymes is found in the mouth

salivary amylase

12

a technique employed by some endurance athletes to increase their storage of muscle glycogen is

carbohydrate loading

13

gluconeogenesis is

the synthesis of new glucose from amino acids

14

which of the following are the preferred fuels for most body functions

carbohydrate and fat

15

insulin is synthesized and released by the

pancreas

16

which of the following hormones is released when your blood sugar is too high

insulin

17

after a meal, which hormone is responsible for moving glucose into the body's cells

insulin

18

which of the following best describes the glycemic index

the extent to which a given food raises blood glucose and insulin

19

which of the following is an example of a soluble fiber

pectins

20

in the absence of carbohydrate, _____ are produced from the incomplete breakdown of body fat

ketones

21

which of the following is associated with the development of ketosis

a diet that contains insufficient carbohydrate

22

what is not a symptom of ketosis

high blood cholesterol

23

a diet low in fiber is associated with an increased risk of developing

diverticulosis

24

insoluble fiber consumption i associated with decreased

risk of diverticulosis

25

which of the following are substances in plant foods that are not absorbed by the body

dietary fiber

26

mucilage is a type of fiber used to

thicken jams and yogurts

27

how many grams of carbohydrate per day are recommended to prevent ketosis in health individuals

130 grams

28

what is not a health problem related to eating too much sugar

hyperactivity in children

29

sugar alcohols are most often used in what products

chewing gums

30

which artificial sweetener was almost banned because of a proposed relationship with bladder cancer

saccharin

31

individuals with the disease phenylketonuris (PKU) should not consume artificial sweetener aspartame, why?

people with PKU can not metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine

32

individuals with untreated _____ are at risk for developing ketoaciosis

diabetes mellitus

33

the richest dietary source of resistant starch is

legumes

34

why is meat not a good dietary source of glycogen

most of the glycogen found in meat is broken down when the animal is slaughtered

35

the insoluble fiber that provides the main structural component of plant cell walls is

cellulose

36

what hormone is not involved in maintaining blood glucose levels

thyroxin

37

what is the recommended dietary allowance for carbohydrates for an adult 19 years of age or older

130

38

the term enriched on a food label signifies that

the nutrients in the food were lost during processing and then added back in

39

what artificial sweetener is made from sucrose

sucralose

40

red blood cells and the brain rely on _____ for energy

glucose

41

in photosynthesis the pigment _____ absorbs sunlight to make glucose

chlorophyll

42

lactose is composed of one molecule of glucose and one molecule of

galactose

43

the storage form of glucose in animals is

glycogen

44

the majority of _____ digestion and absorption occurs in the small intestine

carbohydrate

45

in the body, glycogen is stored in the _____ and the skeletal muscles

liver

46

when blood glucose levels drop, the hormone _____ brings glucose out of storage to raise blood glucose levels

glucagon

47

the term _____ refers to the production of new glucose from the breakdown of protein

gluconeogenisis

48

the _____ load of a food is determined by the grams of carbohydrate it contains multiplied by its glycemic index

glycemic

49

people with the disorder _____ should not consume aspartame

phynylketonuria

50

a _____ food is one in which nutrients are added that did not originally exist in that food

fortified

51

a lack of fiber in the diet can lead to sacs or pouches that protrude form the wall of the large intestine in the disease called

diverticulosis

52

ketones are produced for energy when fat is broken down because _____ intake is insufficient

carbohydrate

53

dietary fiber is the nondigestible parts of plants that form the support structures of leaves, stems, and seeds; _____ fiber is the nondigstible forms of carbohydrate extracted from plants or manufactured in a laboratory

functional

54

the enzyme _____ amylase is responsible for carbohydrate digestion in the mouth

salivary

55

the primary energy source used by the body at rest is

fat

56

a condition marked by blood glucose levels that are below normal fasting levels is

hypoglycemia