Ch 6 - Molecular Biology of Bacteria Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 6 - Molecular Biology of Bacteria Deck (54)
1

DNA is duplicated

replication

2

information from DNA is transferred to RNA

transcription

3

encodes polypeptides

mRNA

4

plays role in protein synthesis

tRNA, rRNA

5

information in RNA is used to build polypeptides

translation

6

Central dogma of molecular biology

DNA --> RNA --> protein

7

Backbone of DNA chain is:

alternating phosphates and the pentose sugar deoxyribose

8

Adenine always pairs with:

Thymine

9

Guanine always pairs with

Cytosine

10

_______ ________ between DNA strands hold two strands together

Hydrogen bonds

11

A–T pair has ____ hydrogen bonds

two

12

G–C pair has _____ hydrogen bonds

three

13

High heat breaks hydrogen bonds, causing ________.

denaturation

14

double helix is underwound

negative supercoiling

15

double helix is overwound

positive supercoiling

16

_______supercoiling is predominantly found in nature

negative

17

Size of DNA molecule is expressed in ______ ________.

base pairs

18

____ base pairs make up 1 turn of the helix

10

19

entire complement of genes in cell or virus

genome

20

main genetic element in prokaryotes

chromosome

21

Average protein contains _____ amino acids

~300

22

majority of plasmids are ______-stranded

double

23

most plasmids are circular/linear?

circular

24

confer resistance to antibiotics and other growth inhibitors

r-plasmids (resistance plasmids)

25

these plasmids Enable pathogen to colonize or can cause host damage.

virulence plasmids

26

Transcription is carried out by ________.

RNA polymerase

27

RNA polymerase recognizes DNA sites called _______.

promoters

28

Transcription stops at specific sites called _____ ________.

transcription terminators

29

Two regions within promoters that are highly conserved

-10 region, -35 region

30

transcription is terminated without any additional factors

intrinsic terminators

31

Rho protein recognizes specific DNA sequences and causes a pause in the RNA polymerase

rho dependent termination

32

An mRNA encoding a group of co-transcribed genes is called:

polycistronic mRNA

33

a group of related genes cotranscribed on a polycistronic mRNA

operon

34

Allows for expression of multiple genes to be coordinated

operon

35

the synthesis of proteins from RNA

translation

36

a triplet of nucleic acid bases (codon) encodes a single amino acid

genetic code

37

multiple codons encode a single amino acid

degenerate code

38

________ on tRNA recognizes codon

Anticodon

39

irregular base pairing allowed at third position of tRNA

wobble

40

terminate translation (UAA, UAG, and UGA)

stop codons

41

translation begins with AUG

start codon

42

triplet code requires translation to begin at the correct nucleotide

reading frame

43

ensures proper reading frame

Shine–Dalgarno sequence

44

AUG followed by a number of codons and a stop codon in the same reading frame

open reading frame (ORF)

45

multiple codons for the same amino acid are not used equally

codon bias

46

______ is required to attach amino acid to tRNA

ATP

47

______ is cloverleaf in shape

tRNA

48

sites of protein synthesis

ribosomes

49

Interactions of the R groups force the molecule to twist and fold in a certain way

secondary structure

50

3-dimensional shape of polypeptide

tertiary structure

51

Number and types of polypeptides that make a protein

quarternary structure

52

When proteins are exposed to extremes of heat, pH, or certain chemicals

denaturation

53

found on proteins requiring transport from cell

signal sequences

54

assist in folding improperly folded proteins

chaperonins