Ch 6 - Molecular Biology of Bacteria Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 6 - Molecular Biology of Bacteria Deck (54)
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1

DNA is duplicated

replication

2

information from DNA is transferred to RNA

transcription

3

encodes polypeptides

mRNA

4

plays role in protein synthesis

tRNA, rRNA

5

information in RNA is used to build polypeptides

translation

6

Central dogma of molecular biology

DNA --> RNA --> protein

7

Backbone of DNA chain is:

alternating phosphates and the pentose sugar deoxyribose

8

Adenine always pairs with:

Thymine

9

Guanine always pairs with

Cytosine

10

_______ ________ between DNA strands hold two strands together

Hydrogen bonds

11

A–T pair has ____ hydrogen bonds

two

12

G–C pair has _____ hydrogen bonds

three

13

High heat breaks hydrogen bonds, causing ________.

denaturation

14

double helix is underwound

negative supercoiling

15

double helix is overwound

positive supercoiling

16

_______supercoiling is predominantly found in nature

negative

17

Size of DNA molecule is expressed in ______ ________.

base pairs

18

____ base pairs make up 1 turn of the helix

10

19

entire complement of genes in cell or virus

genome

20

main genetic element in prokaryotes

chromosome

21

Average protein contains _____ amino acids

~300

22

majority of plasmids are ______-stranded

double

23

most plasmids are circular/linear?

circular

24

confer resistance to antibiotics and other growth inhibitors

r-plasmids (resistance plasmids)

25

these plasmids Enable pathogen to colonize or can cause host damage.

virulence plasmids

26

Transcription is carried out by ________.

RNA polymerase

27

RNA polymerase recognizes DNA sites called _______.

promoters

28

Transcription stops at specific sites called _____ ________.

transcription terminators

29

Two regions within promoters that are highly conserved

-10 region, -35 region

30

transcription is terminated without any additional factors

intrinsic terminators