Ch 10 - Genetics of Bacteria and Archaea Flashcards Preview

Microbiology - Biol3880 > Ch 10 - Genetics of Bacteria and Archaea > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch 10 - Genetics of Bacteria and Archaea Deck (44)
1

Heritable change in DNA sequence that can lead to a change in phenotype

mutation

2

A strain of any cell or virus differing from parental strain in genotype

mutant

3

Typically refers to strain isolated from nature

wild type strain

4

mutations that give the mutant a growth advantage under certain conditions

selectable mutations

5

mutations that usually have neither an advantage nor a disadvantage over the parent

nonselectable mutations

6

Detection of such mutations requires examining a large number of colonies and looking for differences (screening)

nonselectable mutations

7

_______ __________ is useful for identification of cells with a nutritional requirement for growth

Replica plating

8

Mutations made environmentally or deliberately

induced mutations

9

mutations that Can result from exposure to natural radiation or oxygen radicals

induced mutations

10

mutations that occur without external intervention

spontaneous mutations

11

Mutations that change only one base pair

point mutations

12

Deletions or insertions that result in a shift in the reading frame

frameshift mutations

13

Often result in complete loss of gene function

frameshift mutations

14

process where point mutations are typically reversible

reversion

15

Strain in which original phenotype is restored

revertant

16

mutation is at the same site as original mutation

same-site revertant

17

mutation is at a different site in the DNA

second-site revertant

18

chemical, physical, or biological agents that increase mutation rates

mutagens

19

mutagens that resemble nucleotides

Nucleotide base analogs

20

give an example of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation

radiation

21

______ and ______strongly absorb UV

Purines and pyrimidines

22

give an example of ionizing mutagenic electromagnetic radiation

x-rays, cosmic rays, gamma rays

23

this type of electromagneti radiation Ionizes water and produce free radicals

ionizing

24

DNA repair system where mutated base is still recognizable and can be repaired without referring to other strand

direct reversal

25

DNA repair system where damaged DNA is removed and repaired using opposite strand as template

repair of single strand

26

DNA repair system to repair a break in the DNA

repair of double-strand damage

27

Physical exchange of DNA between genetic elements

recombination

28

Process that results in genetic exchange between homologous DNA from two different sources

homologous recombination

29

Genetic transfer process by which DNA is incorporated into a recipient cell and brings about genetic change

transformation

30

who discovered transformation?

Fredrick Griffith

31

cells capable of taking up DNA and being transformed

competent cells

32

Transfer of DNA from one cell to another by a bacteriophage

transduction

33

mechanism of genetic transfer that involves cell-to-cell contact

bacterial conjugation (mating)

34

contains conjugative plasmid

donor cell

35

cell that does not contain plasmid

recipient cell

36

cells that can't take up DNA

non-competent cells

37

Electricity can be used to force cells to take up DNA

electroporation

38

Discrete segments of DNA that move as a unit from one location to another within other DNA molecules are ________

transposable elements

39

transposable elements move by a process called ______

transposition

40

Two main types of transposable elements in Bacteria are _______ and __________

transposons and insertion sequences

41

what are the two characteristics of the transposons and insertion sequences?

1) genes encoding transposase
2) recognition sites at both ends

42

Changes codon so it encodes for the wrong AA

missense mutation

43

Changes codon so it encodes for a stop codon

nonsense mutation

44

Changes codon so it encodes for correct amino acid

silent mutation