Ch 4 - Nutrition, Culture, and Metabolism of Microorganisms Flashcards Preview

Microbiology - Biol3880 > Ch 4 - Nutrition, Culture, and Metabolism of Microorganisms > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch 4 - Nutrition, Culture, and Metabolism of Microorganisms Deck (51)
1

The sum total of all chemical reactions that occur in a cell

metabolism

2

Energy-releasing metabolic reactions

catabolic reactions

3

Energy-requiring metabolic reactions

anabolic reactions

4

iron under anoxic conditions, exist in which form (Fe2+/Fe3+) and (soluble/insoluble).

Fe2+ and soluble

5

iron under oxic conditions, exist in which form (Fe2+/Fe3+) and (soluble/insoluble).

Fe3+ and insoluble

6

these iron-binding agents obtain iron from insoluble mineral form

siderophores

7

a culture media where precise chemical composition is known

Defined media

8

a culture media composed of digests of chemically undefined substances

complex media

9

culture containing only a single kind of microbe

pure culture

10

unwanted organisms in a culture

contaminants

11

unit of measurement for energy

kJ

12

energy released that is available to do work

free energy

13

change in free energy during a reaction

delta G0′

14

Reactions with a negative delta G0′ release/require free energy

release

15

Reactions with a positive delta G0′ release/require energy

require

16

Reactions with a negative delta G0′ release free energy

exergonic

17

Reactions with a positive delta G0′ require energy

endergonic

18

free energy that occurs under actual conditions

delta G

19

delta G =

delta G0′ + RT ln K

20

energy required to bring all molecules in a chemical reaction into the reactive state

activation energy

21

substance that Lowers the activation energy of a reaction

catalyst

22

substance that Increases reaction rate

catalyst

23

Are enzymes generally larger or smaller than the substrate?

larger

24

region of enzyme that binds substrate

ACTIVE SITE

25

cleaves peptidoglycan

lysozyme

26

non protein molecules that bind tightly to enzymes

prosthetic group

27

non protein molecules bound loosely to enzymes

coenzymes

28

redox reactions occur in two ____ ______.

half reactions

29

the substance oxidized in a redox reaction

electron donor

30

the substance reduced in a redox reaction

electron acceptor

31

tendency to donate electrons

electron potential

32

unit of measurement for electron potential

volts

33

is the substance at the top of a redox tower reduced or oxidized?

reduced

34

is the substance at the bottom of a redox tower reduced or oxidized?

oxidized

35

the substance at the top of the tower donates/accepts electrons

donates

36

the substance at the bottom of the tower donates/accepts electrons

accepts

37

where is energy stored in prokaryotes?

glycogen

38

where is energy stored in eukaryotes?

starch and lipids

39

substrate-level phosphorylation; ATP directly synthesized from an energy-rich intermediate

fermentation

40

oxidative phosphorylation

respiration

41

ATP produced from proton motive force formed by transport of electrons

respiration

42

Oxidation using O2 as the terminal electron acceptor

aerobic respiration

43

Proteins that contain heme prosthetic groups

cytochromes

44

during electron transfer, do protons end up on the inside or outside of the membrane?

outside

45

pathway through which pyruvate is completely oxidized to CO2

citric acid cycle

46

how many CO2 molecules are released in the citric acid cycle per glucose molecule

6

47

Synthesis of glucose from phosphoenolpyruvate

gluconeogenesis

48

Adenine and guanine - Purines or Pyrimidines?

purines

49

Thymine, cytosine, and uracil - purines or pyrimidines?

pyrimidines

50

what are the two major modes of enzyme regulation?

amount and activity

51

different enzymes that catalyze the same function

Isoenzymes