Flashcards in Ch 4 - Nutrition, Culture, and Metabolism of Microorganisms Deck (51)
The sum total of all chemical reactions that occur in a cell
Energy-releasing metabolic reactions
Energy-requiring metabolic reactions
iron under anoxic conditions, exist in which form (Fe2+/Fe3+) and (soluble/insoluble).
Fe2+ and soluble
iron under oxic conditions, exist in which form (Fe2+/Fe3+) and (soluble/insoluble).
Fe3+ and insoluble
these iron-binding agents obtain iron from insoluble mineral form
a culture media where precise chemical composition is known
a culture media composed of digests of chemically undefined substances
culture containing only a single kind of microbe
unwanted organisms in a culture
unit of measurement for energy
energy released that is available to do work
change in free energy during a reaction
Reactions with a negative delta G0′ release/require free energy
Reactions with a positive delta G0′ release/require energy
Reactions with a negative delta G0′ release free energy
Reactions with a positive delta G0′ require energy
free energy that occurs under actual conditions
delta G =
delta G0′ + RT ln K
energy required to bring all molecules in a chemical reaction into the reactive state
substance that Lowers the activation energy of a reaction
substance that Increases reaction rate
Are enzymes generally larger or smaller than the substrate?
region of enzyme that binds substrate
non protein molecules that bind tightly to enzymes
non protein molecules bound loosely to enzymes
redox reactions occur in two ____ ______.
the substance oxidized in a redox reaction
the substance reduced in a redox reaction
tendency to donate electrons
unit of measurement for electron potential
is the substance at the top of a redox tower reduced or oxidized?
is the substance at the bottom of a redox tower reduced or oxidized?
the substance at the top of the tower donates/accepts electrons
the substance at the bottom of the tower donates/accepts electrons
where is energy stored in prokaryotes?
where is energy stored in eukaryotes?
starch and lipids
substrate-level phosphorylation; ATP directly synthesized from an energy-rich intermediate
ATP produced from proton motive force formed by transport of electrons
Oxidation using O2 as the terminal electron acceptor
Proteins that contain heme prosthetic groups
during electron transfer, do protons end up on the inside or outside of the membrane?
pathway through which pyruvate is completely oxidized to CO2
citric acid cycle
how many CO2 molecules are released in the citric acid cycle per glucose molecule
Synthesis of glucose from phosphoenolpyruvate
Adenine and guanine - Purines or Pyrimidines?
Thymine, cytosine, and uracil - purines or pyrimidines?
what are the two major modes of enzyme regulation?
amount and activity