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Microbiology - Biol3880 > Microorganisms (Wk 1) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Microorganisms (Wk 1) Deck (48)
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1

study of all of the genetic material (DNA) in living cells

Genomics

2

Manipulation of cellular genomes

biotechnology

3

study of RNA patterns

Transcriptomics

4

study of all the proteins produced by cell(s)

Proteomics

5

study of metabolic expression in cells

metabolomics

6

Barrier that separates the inside of the cell from the outside environment

cell membrane

7

Present in most microbes, confers structural strength

cell wall

8

chemical transformation of nutrients

metabolism

9

generation of two cells from one

reproduction

10

genetic changes in cells that are transferred to offspring

evolution

11

what are the 3 properties of all cells?

1) metabolism 2) reproduction 3) evolution

12

synthesis of new substances or structures that modify the cell

differentiation

13

generation of, and response to, chemical signals

communication

14

protein catalysts of the cell that accelerate chemical reactions

enzymes

15

DNA produces RNA

transcription

16

RNA makes protein

translation

17

Populations of interacting assemblages of microbes in nature

microbial communities

18

The environment in which a microbial population lives

habitat

19

All living organisms plus physical and chemical constituents of their environment

ecosystem

20

The study of microbes in their natural environment

microbial ecology

21

common ancestral cell from which all cells descended

LUCA - last universal common ancestor

22

The atmosphere was ______until ~2 billion years ago

anoxic

23

Earth is _______ years old

4.6 billion

24

Life was exclusively ______ until ~1 billion years ago

microbial

25

Most microbial cells are found in _______and ________ subsurfaces

oceanic, terrestrial

26

Give examples of microbes as biofuels

methane, ethanol, hydrogen

27

using microbes to clean up pollutants

bioremediation

28

Early microscopist that observed fruiting molds

Robert Hooke

29

First microscopist to observe bacteria

Antoni van Leeuwenhoek

30

Invented first vaccine (small pox)

Edward Jenner