Microorganisms (Wk 1) Flashcards Preview

Microbiology - Biol3880 > Microorganisms (Wk 1) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Microorganisms (Wk 1) Deck (48)
1

study of all of the genetic material (DNA) in living cells

Genomics

2

Manipulation of cellular genomes

biotechnology

3

study of RNA patterns

Transcriptomics

4

study of all the proteins produced by cell(s)

Proteomics

5

study of metabolic expression in cells

metabolomics

6

Barrier that separates the inside of the cell from the outside environment

cell membrane

7

Present in most microbes, confers structural strength

cell wall

8

chemical transformation of nutrients

metabolism

9

generation of two cells from one

reproduction

10

genetic changes in cells that are transferred to offspring

evolution

11

what are the 3 properties of all cells?

1) metabolism 2) reproduction 3) evolution

12

synthesis of new substances or structures that modify the cell

differentiation

13

generation of, and response to, chemical signals

communication

14

protein catalysts of the cell that accelerate chemical reactions

enzymes

15

DNA produces RNA

transcription

16

RNA makes protein

translation

17

Populations of interacting assemblages of microbes in nature

microbial communities

18

The environment in which a microbial population lives

habitat

19

All living organisms plus physical and chemical constituents of their environment

ecosystem

20

The study of microbes in their natural environment

microbial ecology

21

common ancestral cell from which all cells descended

LUCA - last universal common ancestor

22

The atmosphere was ______until ~2 billion years ago

anoxic

23

Earth is _______ years old

4.6 billion

24

Life was exclusively ______ until ~1 billion years ago

microbial

25

Most microbial cells are found in _______and ________ subsurfaces

oceanic, terrestrial

26

Give examples of microbes as biofuels

methane, ethanol, hydrogen

27

using microbes to clean up pollutants

bioremediation

28

Early microscopist that observed fruiting molds

Robert Hooke

29

First microscopist to observe bacteria

Antoni van Leeuwenhoek

30

Invented first vaccine (small pox)

Edward Jenner

31

Disproved spontaneous generation

Louis Pasteur

32

invented vaccines for rabies and anthrax

Louis Pasteur

33

responsible for pure cultures

Robert Koch

34

Identified infectious agents of cholera and TB

Robert Koch

35

His hypothesis stated: material in dead bacterial cells can genetically transform living bacterial cells

Fred Griffith

36

Field that focuses on nonmedical aspects of microbiology

microbial diversity

37

1st to study microbial diversity and developed enrichment culture technique

Martinus Beijerinck

38

Proposed concept of chemolithotrophy

Sergei Winogradsky

39

Oxidation of inorganic compounds linked to energy conservation

chemolithotrophy

40

The science of grouping and classifying microorganisms

microbial systematics

41

Study of the nutrients that microbes require for metabolism and growth and the products that they generate

microbial physiology

42

Study of cellular structure

cytology

43

these subdisciplines of applied microbiology have roots in Koch’s work. ______ and _______

medical microbiology & immunology

44

these subdisciplines of applied microbiology developed from concepts developed by Beijerinck & Winogradsky. ______ and ________

Agricultural & industrial microbiology

45

these subdisciplines of applied microbiology developed from advances in soil microbiology

Aquatic & marine microbiology

46

Study of microbial enzymes and chemical reactions

microbial biochemistry

47

Study of heredity and variation in bacteria

Bacterial genetics

48

Study of viruses

virology