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Flashcards in Ch1 Deck (22):
1

differentiated instruction

takes into account students' abilities/prior knowledge/challenges so instruction matches students' needs

2

descriptive studies

collect detailed info about specific situations (uses: observation, surveys, interviews, recordings, etc)

3

ethnography

focuses on life w/i a group (tries to understand meaning of events to people involved)

4

participant observation

researcher becomes participant (to understand the group better)

5

case study

intensive study of one person/situation

6

experimentation

manipulated variables + effects recorded

7

statistically significant

not likely to be a chance occurrence

8

single-subject experimental studies

systematic interventions to study effects w/ one person (applying and then withdrawing a treatment)

9

microgenetic studies

detailed observation and analysis of changes in a cognitive process as the process unfolds over several days or weeks

10

longitudinal studies

changes that occur in subjects over years

11

cross-sectional studies

groups at different ages for many years

12

action research

systematic observations/tests of methods that teachers/schools conduct

13

hypothesis

prediction of what will happen in a research study based on THEORY and PREVIOUS RESEARCH

14

open/closed systems

c: no exchange of energy or matter or information across the system (laboratory)

15

underdetermination thesis

a number of theories can be used to explain observed events

research never PROVES a theory

16

model

low-level theory that describes/represents the way things are related

(metaphors)

17

mechanistic model

human psychology as machinery

18

organismic

human psychology as growing naturally

(similar to plants:)

19

discursive

human psychology as a form of conversation

discourse: symbolic exchange of ideas through conversation

20

executive

preparing/arranging/delivering lessons, teaching learners skills and info

21

therapist

empathetic facilitator of student growth and self-development (psychotherapy/humanistic)

22

liberationist

free students' minds, empowering them to become autonomous learners