Ch 7 Behavioural views of learning Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 7 Behavioural views of learning Deck (31):
1

Rene Descartes (voluntary vs involuntary behaviour)

- explaining reflexes which were thought before to be voluntary
- reflexes believed to be innate
- learned behaviour = consequence of experience

2

Ivan Pavlov: Classical conditioning

unconscious, conditioned response tends to be physiological

3

John Watson: Environmentalism

Pavlov human v.
Little Albert baby experiment
Radical behaviourism

4

contiguity

association of two events because of repeated pairing

5

Edward Thorndike

-1928 study of adult learning (myth: learning stopped at 16)
-learning: reduction in randomness of behaviour as a result of consquences

6

Laws of Learning (Thorndike)

(Law of) effect, multiple responses, readiness, set, prepotentancy of elements, response by analogy

7

The identical elements theory of training

similarities have to be great, revitalization in N.American education (teach applicable, useful knowledge related to useful jobs)

8

BF Skinner

operant conditioning

9

operant conditioning

voluntary behaviour strengthened/weakened by consequents/antecedents

10

elicited responses (respondents)

stimulus-related, physiological

11

emitted responses (operants)

voluntary behaviour

12

primary reinforcer

doesn't need to be learned (eg food)

13

generalized

stimuli that not reinforcing before being paired w/a primary reinforcer, requires learning

(eg money, grades)

14

operant effects

+/- reinforcement, presentation/removal punishment

15

+ reinforcement

+ reinforcers/desired stimulus (strengthening)

16

- reinforcement

- reinforcer/aversive stimulus (strengthening)

17

presentation punishment (type 1)

weakening + aversive stimulus

18

removal punishment

weakening + removal of desired stimulus

19

Premack's principle

favoured activities to reinforce participation in less desired activities

20

extinction

weakening response by not reinforcing

21

extinction rate

time lapse between withdrawal and cessation of a response

22

Applied Behaviour Analysis

Antecedent -> Behaviour -> Consequences

23

effective instruction delivery (EID)

concise/clear/specific instructions that communicate an expected result (statement*)

24

shaping

reinforcing each small step of progress toward a desired goal/behaviour

25

successive approximations

small components that make up a complex behaviour

26

task analysis

system for breaking down a task hierarchically into basic (sub)skills

27

response cost

punishment by loss of reinforcers (that already have been received)

28

social isolation

removal of a disruptive student (5-10 min)

29

time out

removal of all reinforcement

30

contingency contract

teacher and student, specifying what the student must do to earn st

31

token reinforcement system

tokens earned for academic work/positive classroom behaviour in exchange for desired reward