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Flashcards in Ch2 Deck (42):
1

development

orderly, adaptive changes humans go through

2

physical development

body structure

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personal development

personality

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social development

ways in which one relates to others

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cognitive development

(gradual, orderly) mental processes become more complex

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maturation

genetically programmed, naturally occurring over time

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neurogenesis

production of new neurons

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people develop at...

different rates

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development is relatively..

orderly

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development takes place

gradually

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development occurs at

different rates/times in different parts

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_____.. not _____ is the rule

correlation; compensation

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development proceeds at

the rate it starts

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there are ___ differences

sex

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brain lateralization

2 specialized hemispheres connected by the corpus callosum

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Kant's influence in Piagetian Theory

innate categories help make our experiences

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Evolutionary influences in Piagetian Theory

features of organisms that allowed adaptation and development

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2 basic tendencies/invariant functions

Organization, Adaptation

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adaptation

adjusting to the environment

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organization

ongoing process of arranging info and experience -> mental systems/categories

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schemes

mental systems/categories of perception and experience

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assimilation

fitting new info into existing schemes

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accommodation

altering existing schemes/creating new ones in response to new info

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equilibration

search for mental balance between cognitive schemes and info from environment

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disequilibrium

("out-of-balance" state) current ways of thinking arent working to solve/understand

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4 stages of cognitive development

Sensorimotor -> Preoperational -> Concrete operational -> formal operational

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sensorimotor

0-2 years

learning through reflexes/senses/movement

gains object permanence

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preoperational

5/7 years

language, symbols, difficulty with past/future, difficulty understanding another pov

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concrete operational

7-12

mentally manipulate objects + explain transformations, logical thinking about concrete (hands-on) problems

understands past, present, future

30

formal operational

adulthood

hypothetical/deductive thinking, abstract/logical thinking, multiple perspectives, concerns about social issues/personal identity/justice

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semiotic function

ability to use symbols (language, pictures, signs, gestures) to represent actions or objects mentally

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reversible thinking

thinking backward, from end to beginning

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conservation

principle that some characteristics of an object remain the same despite changes in appearance

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decentring

focusing on 1(+) aspect at a time

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egocentric

assuming others experience the world the way you do

36

concrete operations

mental tasks tied to concrete objects and situations

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identity

principle that person/object remains the same over time

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compensation

principle that changes in one dimension can be offset by changes in another dimention

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seriation

arrangement of objects in sequential order according to 1 aspect (eg weight, size, volume)

40

hypothetico-deductive thinking

individual begins by identifying all the factors that might affect a problem and then deduces and systematically evaluates specific solutions

41

limitations to Piagetian theory

limited vocab, some can show higher intelligence than their age suggests, memory problem when an infant cannot find the object

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implications for education

understanding students' thinking, matching teaching strategies to abilities