Chapter 10 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 10 Deck (32):
1

agricultural revolution

-started in England and Holland
-enclosure movement
-crop rotation

2

enclosure movement

privatized land formerly available to everyone
-basically landownership in fewer hands

3

causes of the industrial revolution

-population growth (small pox vaccination)
-encouragement of investment
-strong central banking
-additional markets in colonial system
-free trade in Europe
-abundant capital

4

outcomes of the industrial revolution

-impoverishment of domestic weavers (family economy and putting out system)
-factory life instead of putting out system
-poor housing
-improvement of housing after 1840s

5

romanticisim

-Gothic
-irrational feelings
-traditional views
-response to rationalism (enlightenment)
-response to rationalism and terror of french revolution
-response to ugliness of IR

6

characteristics of romantism

-sincerity, authentiicy and toleration (french revolution)
-value emotion and religion
-mysticism
-harmony with nature (not control, IR)
-past history
-nationalism
worship of nature
folklore, folk song
-against materialism
-pantheism
-past (Greek and medieval)

7

pantheism

great force in nature with God

8

Rousseau

natural education
-individuality (emotion instead of science)
-social contract

9

kant

reconcile enlightened rationalism with human freedom, immortality and God

10

goethe

deep spiritual feelings
improvement of man kind
reason cannot save us

11

Alexander I

-tsar during Napoleonic war
-initially interested in limited reforms
-becomes more conservative after defeat of napoleon

12

Nicholas I

-come to power after decembrist uprisings
-reactionary conservative

13

decembrist uprisings

Alexander's brother Constantine was supposed to be king, but then Nichols became king
this caused military leaders to rebel against Nicholas
-these leaders were expsoed to liberal ideas

14

Carlsbad decrees

suppressed student liberalism and nationalism in Austria

15

great Britain from 1740-1848

-there were problems with the voting distribution and rotten boroughs
-there was also the problem of the corn laws
-many people protested against this (peter loo massacre)
-then the government started to reform (repeal of corn laws)
-reform act of 1832

16

peter loo massacre

during 1740-1848
people protested against corn laws

17

France in 1815

-Louis XVIII restored (moderate)
-Charles X came into power
-he was extremely conservationist
-led to July revolution
-then Louis Philippe was brought into power by working class and upper middle class
-this was a consitioanl monarchy

18

Louis XVIII

restored after congress of Vienna
-moderate reformer
-kept napoleon's laws intact

19

overall revolutions of 1830

-Belgium = yay! (nationalism)
-Poland = no! (nationalism) (russian control)
-Italy = no! (nationalism) (carbonari) (suppressed by Austria)
-french = meh! (Louis Philippe)

20

liberalism

-rationalism and freedom of individual
-constitutional, limited monarchy
-dislike hereditary privileges
-constitutions
-distrust of religious organizations
-secular state
-free speech and press
-laissez faire
-not FULL democracy

21

reform act of 1832

-reaction to boroughs problem
-created new districts representing heavily urban areas
-it only included one in 5 males allowing to vote
-doubled number of votes

22

john stuart mill

classical liberalism (equal rights, women)

23

nationalism beliefs

-common history
-historic geographical area
-common language
-common religion
-shared culture
-common enemies

24

corn laws

put taxes on corn
repealed in 1740-148

25

characteristics of first industrial revolution

-textile industry
-steam engine
-railroad
-coal
-iron

26

second industrial revolution

-Germany
-chemicals
-steel (no more iron)
-electricity instead of steam
-oil (no more coal)
-big companies
-working conditions improve (worker parties, trade unions and socialist parties)

27

T.R. Malthus

-food production instead arithmetic rate (slower)
-unchecked population at geometric rate

28

David ricardo

raising wages, buy more food, more kids, over supply of workers
-fewer workers raised wages
-keep wages as low as possible

29

Utopian socialism

-must emphasize needs of community over themselves
-redistribution of wealth through agency of state was necessary to create more workable societies
-argued to how to this (democratically em-pose taxes or kill all rich people

30

saint simon

private wealth should be put under greater administrative
control
socailist

31

anarchism

revolutionary alternative to evolutionary socialism

32

marxism

-class struggle
-capitalism gave triumph to industrialization
-but capitalism also concentrates resources into fewer hands until the proletariat would overthrow the rich in a bloody revolution
-society then could be reordered and eliminate the spirit of competition
-history would cease since class struggle would no longer be necessary