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Flashcards in Chapter 9 Deck (33):
1

causes of the french revolution

-peasants were mad (income, taxes)
-poor harvests
-bankrupt of government (debts )
-aristocratic resistance against taxes
-censorship
-unpopularity of church hierarchy and privileges
-taxes to church
-noble privileges

2

Louis XVI

-married to Marie Antoinette
-french revolution

3

Necker

financial official during french revolution

4

Edmund burke

English critic
-state is partnership
-no reform
-sudden change = no okay, gradual change = okay
-during french revolution
-warned that mob rule would lead to anarchy and military dictatorship

5

robspierre

=Jacobin leader

6

Pitt the younger

British organizer of alliances against forces of revolution and napoleon

7

the french revolution timeline

-calling of estates general (solve bankruptcy)
-tennis court oath
-Bastille
-the great fear
-Austria and Prussia threaten to invade France
-legislative assembly declare war
-sans-culottes took control and pressure the legislative assembly into calling for anew national convention
-national convention declare republic and kill king
-giondrists outed Jacobins
-then there were threats from girodinsts and royalists and foreign threats
-reign of terror

8

the great fear

agarain revolt during french revolution

9

emigres

princes and nobles who fled France to raise foreign opposition

10

national assembly / constituent assembly

-limited monarchy
-metric system
-abolish internal taxes
-abolish guilds

11

civil constituent of assembly

-church nationalized
-church are employees of the state
-took lands
-took an loath
-church officials elected by the people

12

Le chapelier law

against organised labor

13

assignats

bonds issued by government
-later used as currency
-over issue led to high inflation

14

Jacobin

-racial revolutionizes
-no monarchies
-republic
-not lyattete
-king dead
-supported by sans-coulerte
-

15

girondins

-more moderate than Jacobins
-advocates of war with Russia
-extend french revolutionary ideas
-king improsioned

16

declaration of pilnitz

Leopold II of Austria threaten war with France
-wanted to restore absolutism

17

september massacres

massacre of royalists

18

vendee

counterrevolutionary uprising in western central France
-suppressed by Robespierre

19

thermiorian reaction

reaction against extremism of Robespierre
-ended terror
-started directory

20

the directory

-led by bourgeois (rich)
-new Constitution (corrupt)
-continued war

21

outcomes of french revolution

-overthrow of monarchy (execution)
-power of nobility weakened
-secularization of church
-new metric system, calender
-

22

what lands did napoleon conquer

Netherlands, Italy, Dalmatia, Switzerland, Germany, Poland, Spain, Portugal, Sweden, Egypt and Russia

23

admiral nelson

victor at Trafalgar
-defeated napolone

24

trafalgar

admiral nelson destroyed french and Spain fleets (napoleon)

25

austerlizx

napoleon defeated Austria and Russia
now could demolish HRE
seen as genius

26

napoleon timeline

-invasion of Egypt (fail)
-winning in Austria, Prussia and Prussia
-Austerlitz (reorganize Germany, cause nationalism and unrest)
-guerrilla warfare in Spain (fail)
-failed invasion of Russia
-battle of nations (defeated)
-sent to Elba
-came back (100 days)
-defeated at Waterloo
-sent to St. Helena

27

Louis XVIII

-restored after french revolution
-accepted parliamentary government, Napoleonic code, abolition of feudalism...

28

Napoleonic code

-consolidated hundreds of laws
-guarantied many achievements of french revolution
-increased authority of husbands in family
--civil code restricted women's rights, patriarchal values, guilty until proven innocent

29

concordat of 1801

-granted church special status
-regained right to confirm church dignitaries , depose french bishops. reopen seminaries
-in return, pope recognizes the lands taken

30

how napoleon was enligthened

-encouraged spirit of nationalism at home (but also at Germany)
-Napoleonic code
-abolished serfdom (HRE) (pushed Prussia to go to war)
-ended HRE
-promoted soldiers by merit
-abolish guilds
-plebiscites
-political st-ability

31

how Napeolon was despotic

-secret police
-placed brothers on thrones of Holland, Spain, and Westphalia, and Italy
-created new hereditary nobility
-crowned himself emperor
-restored church to privilege position

32

congress of vienna

-bourbonds restored in france
-quadruple alliance (austria, prussia, russia, britian)
-germany left divided (led by austria)
-netherelands and belgium combined (buffer state)
-austria get tuscany, lombardy and venice
-sardinia get pidemont and savoy
-switzrerland is indepdnet
-sweden get norway
-russia got more polish terriority
-

33

mitternich

against liberalism and nationalism