Chapter 10 #2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 10 #2 Deck (43):
1

causes for 1848 revolutions

-conservative leaders refused to respond
-working class radicals and middle class liberals were convinced that repressive Metternich system had outlived its usefulness
-nationalists in Italy and Germany wanted unification
-Austrians wanted independence
-crop failures, rising prices of food, growing unemployment

2

french 1848 revolution

-Louis Philippe rejected demands for extending franchise to working class ("enrich yourself and you will have the vote")
-his government collapsed
-liberals, socialists, and bonapartists vied for power/ middle class liberals and workers had conflict
-resulted in Bloody June Days
-a second republic was then created with universal male suffrage and a president
-napoleon Bonaparte was elected president

3

second republic

created after Louis Philippe's government collapsed
-liberals, socialists, and bonapartists vied for power
-louis napeolon became president then emperor

4

Austrian 1848 revolution

revolts were kept down by Franz Joseph
-nationalism in Hungary was repressed by Russian troops in Vienna
-revolts in Italy were also put down (Mazzini)

5

Franz joseph

-emperor during Austrian 1848 revolution
-after 1848 revolution, had dual monarchy
-had minority problems

6

Prussian 1848 revolution

-Frederick William IV was forced to make concessions
-he abolished censorship, and a new Constitution that was aimed toward uniting Germany

7

chartists

wanted universal manhood suffrage, secret ballots, no land requirements

8

Frederick William IV

-was forced to make concessions
-he abolished censorship, and a new Constitution that was aimed toward uniting Germany
-the Frankfurt Parliament offered him the to be king of Prussia, but declined because he would be limited by a liberal constitution and have to accept the throne from middle class liberals

9

German 1848 revolution

-Frankfurt parliament
-they split into 2 (Grossdeutsch and Kleindetuch)
-offered Frederick William IV to be king of Prussia

10

Grossdeutsch

-during 1848 German revolution
-wanted to include Austro-Hungarian empire

11

Kleindetuch

-during 1848 German revolution
-excluded Austrians

12

Italian 1848 revolution

-Mazzini
-Young Italy
-repressed by Austrian intervention (Franz Joseph )

13

Crimean War

-Russia versus great Britain, France, and ottoman empire
-Florence Nightingale
-in the end, Alexander II of Russia negotiated peace and instituted reform
-Austria stayed neutral (Russia got mad because of that)
-Sardinia fought to have napoleon III be on his side

14

causes of Crimean war

-conflict over jurisdiction within holy places
-Nicholas wanted to dominate turkey and secure entrance into Mediterranean through Turkish straits (show that France is strong)
-France and Britain didn't want a change in balance of power

15

Unification of Italy

-Cavour modernized and expanded the army
-Cavour wanted to ally with napoleon III, but he ditched them
-Cavour got lombardy with Austria
-Garibaldi and Rome incident
-gained Venetian from Austria during Austro-Prussian War
-after everything, Italy still had the problem of north being industrialized and south being poor
-irredenta was still not incorporated into Italy
-they had a debt afterward

16

Garibaldi

invaded Sicily and Naples
-marched towards Rome

17

mazzini

attempted to unite Italy during 1848
young Italy

18

unification of Germany

-Zollverein was enunciated by Prussian to promote economic growth
-danish war
-austro-prussian war
-franco-prussian war

19

bismarck

realized to the only way to preserve Prussian power was to conquer the rest of Germany and absorb it into a gigantic Prussian state

20

consequences of austro-prussian war

-Austria excluded from German affairs
-Austria agreed to dissolution of German confederation
-Italy annexed Venetian
-north German confederation of created and dominated by Prussia

21

consequences of franco-prussian war

-France had to give up Alsace and Lorraine
-

22

dual monarchy

-separate parliament and domestic government
-still had same ruler, military and diplomatic crops

23

third republic in France

created after napoleon II was ousted
-created after pairs commune
-universal male suffrage and indirect elections

24

Germany 1850-1914

-political democracy was not created
-initially allies with liberals to take down the church (kulturkampf)
-but then he abandoned them and began persecuting the socialists (created a welfare state)
-then William II came in
-Germany became industrialized and led to expansion of social democratic party
-he was a conservative and wanted to stop the growth of socialism
-now there were tensions between modernization and traditionalism

25

pairs commune

-anarchists and socialists created this (working class)
-they were suppressed by middle class
-in the end, the third republic was created
-conservatives and republicans had conflict
-Dreyfus affair

26

Austria in the 1850-1914

-led by Franz Joseph
-dual monarchy
-minority problems

27

Russia 1850-1914

-Alexander II (frees serfs) creates reforms
-Alexander II assassinated
-Alexander III then became repressive
-Nicholas II (revolution of 1905)
-pogroms under Alexander III and Nicholas II

28

Alexander I

-abolish serfdom
-serfs had to pay the government (mir)
-zemstovs were local councils, but were limited
-had secret police
-assainated

29

Nicholas II

-massive industrialization (count wiitte)
-Russia's defeat in Russo-Japanese war cause revolution of 1905
-ended with duma
-however he didn't follow through on his problems of reform
-in march, he was forced to abdicate
-in October, the Bolshevik revolution over throw provisional government

30

count witte

industrialized Russia
-under Nicholas II

31

Britain From 1850-1914

-Victorian age
-moved toward democracy (reform act of 1867 and 1884)
-competition between Disraeli and Gladstone
-women denied right to vote
- liberals had pressure from trade unions who wanted collective ownership and labor party
-liberals moved away from laissez faire and move towards social reforms to keep people away from labor party (led by Lloyd George)

32

Reform Act of 1867

-Disraeli
-

33

Disraeli

-conservative
-electoral reform
-wanted to win voted from working class
-reform act of 1867

34

Gladstone

-liberal
-education act
-wanted home rule (wasn't passed until 1914)

35

Lloyd George

-liberals moved away from laissez faire and move towards social reforms to keep people away from labor party (led by Lloyd George)

36

second industrial revolution

-electrical power
-steel metal replace iron
-oil replace coal
-industrialization moved toward larger an larger scale (cartels and tariffs against foreign products, and corporations and trusts)
-consumer economy
-rise of a large middle class
-new occupation created lower middle class (separate from factory workers, white collar)
-women were fighting for right to vote
-emigration (Ireland)
-improving conditions (Hausseman)

37

Russian 1905 revolution

-terrible conditions of early Russian industrialization
-bloody Sunday
-Marxists exiles became dangerous (menchseviks and Bolsheviks)

38

bloody sunday

troops shoot people outside tsar's palace
Prussian 1905 revolution

39

menchseviks

moderate
wanted mass electoral socialist party

40

Bolsheviks

led by Lenin
attributed success of capitalism invest to new imperialism
a small band of elite revolutionaries could seize control and guide it to communist utopia

41

labor party

-combined with Fabian society and trade union

42

William II

kicked out Bismarck
brought in socialists in paraliement
-Germany became industrialized and led to expansion of social democratic party
-he was a conservative and wanted to stop the growth of socialism
-now there were tensions between modernization and traditionalism

43

evolutionary socailism

Eduard Bernstein
-working class condition was improving
-workers must organize in mass politic parties instead of revolution
DEMOCRATIc means