Chapter 7 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 7 Deck (19):
1

the enlightenment

-focused on rational thought, secularism, spread of education, and knowledge
-reason!
-natural laws regulated the universe and society
-happiness!
-believed in social progress
-liberty!
-toleration!
-against religion (superstition and upholding old ideas) hy

2

philosophes

people who wanted to improve the world

3

locke

-promoted rational government
-promoted understanding human psychology
-"liberty, life, poverty"

4

deism

-Newtonian view of the universe

5

voltaire

-deism
-freedom of thought
-popularized newton
-secularize r
-"crush the infamous thing"
-didn't like french government, like English

6

montesquieu

-separation of powers
-limit on absolutism

7

rousseau

-politics
-natural education instead of rigid
-social contract
-general will

8

general will

no ruler
Rousseau

9

beccaria

criminologist
against torture

10

hume

religion is mere supersition

11

kant

German enlightenment
-critique of pure reason
-categories of understand

12

Enlightened Absolutism (despotism)

-rulers who more or less attempted to incorporate some the ideas of the enlightenment into their governments
-Frederick I of Prussia
-Joseph II of Austria
-Catherine the Great of Russia
-maria Theresa of Austria
-Peter the of Russia

13

characteristics of enlightened` despots

-enact legal codes (abolish traditional privileges)
-encourage educational institutions
-secularization, religious toleration
-weakened of church
-increase revenues of state
-centralize power, codify laws
-built up military power
-monarch is the "servant" of the state

14

maria theresa

-failed to regain Silesia (Austrian success)
-devout catholic
-moderate reformer
-improved economy
-alleviated serfdorm

15

Frederick II the great

-started war of Austrian succession
-consorts with philosophies
-codified laws
-frees crown serfs
-abolished use of torture except for treason and murder
-encouraged Huguenots from France and Jews from Poland to immigrate to Prussia
-strengthened junkers privileges

16

Joseph II

-impatient and furious reformer
-equal taxation
-toleration
-free press
-Jewish nobles
-improved commerce
-suppressed monasteries
-German language is universal
-secret police
-land to serfs
-abolished torture
-nobles didn't like his reforms
-son is leopold

17

leopold

-rolls back many of Joseph's reforms to reduce outrage of nobles
-moderate reformer
-

18

Catherine the great

-codified laws
-consorts with philosophers
-expands Russian territory to south and west (Crimean peninsula, annexed polish territory)
-Pugachev's rebellion
-religious toleration
-allowed a commission to draft a new law code, but nobles refused to give up their privileges and little of accomplished
-allowed nobles more power over serfs and in status

19

PUgachev's rebellion

-Russia (Catherine)
-uprising of serfs
-stopped
-as a result, Catherine gave nobles more privileges and power