Chapter 10 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 10 Deck (102):
1

ankylosis

stiffening and immobility of a joint as a result of disease, trauma, surgery, or abnormal bone fusion

2

carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS)

painful condition resulting from compression of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel

3

claudication

lameness, limping

4

contracture

fibrosis of connective tissue in the skin, fascia, muscle, or joint capsule that prevents normal mobility of the related tissue or joint

5

crepitation

dry, grating sound or sensation caused by bone ends rubbing together, indicating a fracture or joint destruction

6

electromyography

use of electrical stimulation to record the strength of muscle contraction

7

exacerbation

increase in severity of a disease or any of its symptoms

8

ganglion cyst

tumor of tendon sheath or joint capsule, commonly found in the wrist

9

hemarthrosis

effusion of blood into a joint cavity

10

hypotonia

loss of muscular tone or a diminished resistance to passive stretching

11

multiple myeloma

primary malignant tumor that infiltrates the bone and red bone marrow

12

osteophyte

bony outgrowth that occasionally develops on the vertebra and may exert pressure on the spinal cord; also called bone spur

13

phantom limb

perceived sensation, following the amputation of a limb, that the limb still exists

14

prosthesis

replacement of a missing part by an artificial substitute, such as an artificial extremity

15

rickets

form of osteomalacia in children caused by vitamin D deficiency

16

sequestrum

fragment of necrosed bone that has become separated from surrounding tissue

17

spondylolisthesis

any slipping (subluxation) of a vertebra from its normal position in relationship to the one beneath it

18

spondylosis

degeneration of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae and related tissues

19

sprain

tearing of ligament tissue that may be slight, moderate, or complete

20

strain

to exert physical force in a manner that may result in injury, usually muscular

21

subluxation

partial or incomplete dislocation

22

talipes equinovarus

congenital deformity of one or both feet in which the foot is pulled downward and laterally to one side; also called clubfoot

23

muscular dystrophy

disease causing degeneration of muscles

24

myasthenia gravis

chronic neuromuscular disorder characterized by weakness manifested in ocular muscles

25

Ewing sarcoma

type of sarcoma that attacks the shafts rather than the ends of long bones

26

greenstick fracture

bone that is partially bent and partially broken; occurs in children

27

kyphosis

exaggeration of the thoracic curve of the vertebral column; humpback

28

osteoporosis

disease caused by a decrease in bone density; occurs in the elderly

29

scoliosis

deviation of the spine to the right or left

30

chondrosarcoma

cartilagenous sarcoma

31

comminuted fracture

describes a bone that has splintered into pieces

32

spondylitis

inflammation of the vertebrae

33

gout

metabolic disease caused by accumulation of uric acid, usually in the big toe

34

hematopoiesis

development and production of blood cells, normally in the bone marrow

35

pyogenic

formation of pus

36

necrosis

death of cells, tissues, or organs

37

myelography

radiograph of the spinal cord after injection of a contrast medium

38

open reduction

treatment of bone fractures by the use of surgery to place bones in a normal position

39

gold salts

used to treat rheumatoid arthritis by inhibiting activity with the immune system

40

CTS (carpal tunnel syndrome)

painful disorder of the wrist and hand due to compression of the median nerve as it passes through the carpal tunnel

41

laminectomy

excision of the posterior arch of a vertebrae

42

arthrography

series of joint radiographs preceded by injection of a radiopaque substance or air into the joint cavity

43

arthrodesis

surgical binding or immobilization of a joint

44

amputation

partial or complete removal of a limb

45

HNP

herniated nucleus pulposus

46

salicylates

relieve mild to moderate pain and reduce inflammation

47

arthroscopy

visual examination of a joint's interior, especially the knee

48

sequestrectomy

excising a segment of necrosed bone

49

ACL

anterior cruciate ligament

50

relaxants

relieve muscle spasms and stiffness

51

closed reduction

manipulative treatment of bone fractures by placing the bones in normal position without incision

52

stiffening and immobility of a joint as a result of disease, trauma, surgery, or abnormal bone fusion

ankylosis

53

painful condition resulting from compression of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel

carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS)

54

lameness, limping

claudication

55

fibrosis of connective tissue in the skin, fascia, muscle, or joint capsule that prevents normal mobility of the related tissue or joint

contracture

56

dry, grating sound or sensation caused by bone ends rubbing together, indicating a fracture or joint destruction

crepitation

57

use of electrical stimulation to record the strength of muscle contraction

electromyography

58

increase in severity of a disease or any of its symptoms

exacerbation

59

tumor of tendon sheath or joint capsule, commonly found in the wrist

ganglion cyst

60

effusion of blood into a joint cavity

hemarthrosis

61

loss of muscular tone or a diminished resistance to passive stretching

hypotonia

62

primary malignant tumor that infiltrates the bone and red bone marrow

multiple myeloma

63

bony outgrowth that occasionally develops on the vertebra and may exert pressure on the spinal cord; also called bone spur

osteophyte

64

perceived sensation, following the amputation of a limb, that the limb still exists

phantom limb

65

replacement of a missing part by an artificial substitute, such as an artificial extremity

prosthesis

66

form of osteomalacia in children caused by vitamin D deficiency

rickets

67

fragment of necrosed bone that has become separated from surrounding tissue

sequestrum

68

any slipping (subluxation) of a vertebra from its normal position in relationship to the one beneath it

spondylolisthesis

69

degeneration of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae and related tissues

spondylosis

70

tearing of ligament tissue that may be slight, moderate, or complete

sprain

71

to exert physical force in a manner that may result in injury, usually muscular

strain

72

partial or incomplete dislocation

subluxation

73

congenital deformity of one or both feet in which the foot is pulled downward and laterally to one side; also called clubfoot

talipes equinovarus

74

disease causing degeneration of muscles

muscular dystrophy

75

chronic neuromuscular disorder characterized by weakness manifested in ocular muscles

myasthenia gravis

76

type of sarcoma that attacks the shafts rather than the ends of long bones

Ewing sarcoma

77

bone that is partially bent and partially broken; occurs in children

greenstick fracture

78

exaggeration of the thoracic curve of the vertebral column; humpback

kyphosis

79

disease caused by a decrease in bone density; occurs in the elderly

osteoporosis

80

deviation of the spine to the right or left

scoliosis

81

cartilagenous sarcoma

chondrosarcoma

82

describes a bone that has splintered into pieces

comminuted fracture

83

inflammation of the vertebrae

spondylitis

84

metabolic disease caused by accumulation of uric acid, usually in the big toe

gout

85

development and production of blood cells, normally in the bone marrow

hematopoiesis

86

formation of pus

pyogenic

87

death of cells, tissues, or organs

necrosis

88

radiograph of the spinal cord after injection of a contrast medium

myelography

89

treatment of bone fractures by the use of surgery to place bones in a normal position

open reduction

90

used to treat rheumatoid arthritis by inhibiting activity with the immune system

gold salts

91

painful disorder of the wrist and hand due to compression of the median nerve as it passes through the carpal tunnel

CTS (carpal tunnel syndrome)

92

excision of the posterior arch of a vertebrae

laminectomy

93

series of joint radiographs preceded by injection of a radiopaque substance or air into the joint cavity

arthrography

94

surgical binding or immobilization of a joint

arthrodesis

95

partial or complete removal of a limb

amputation

96

herniated nucleus pulposus

HNP

97

relieve mild to moderate pain and reduce inflammation

salicylates

98

visual examination of a joint's interior, especially the knee

arthroscopy

99

excising a segment of necrosed bone

sequestrectomy

100

anterior cruciate ligament

ACL

101

relieve muscle spasms and stiffness

relaxants

102

manipulative treatment of bone fractures by placing the bones in normal position without incision

closed reduction