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Flashcards in Chapter 8 Deck (114)
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1

aneurysm

localized abnormal dilation of a vessel, usually an artery

2

arrest

condition of being stopped or bringing to a stop

3

cardiac arrest

loss of effective cardia function, which results in cessation of circulation

4

circulatory arrest

cessation of the circulation of blood due to ventricular standstill or fibrillation

5

arrhythmia

inability of the heart to maintain a normal sinus rhythm, possibly including a rapid or slow beat or "skipping" a beat; also called dysrhythmia

6

bruit

soft blowing sound heard on auscultation, possibly due to vibrations associated with the movement of blood, valvular action, or both; also called murmur

7

cardiomyopathy

any disease or weakening of the heart muscle that diminishes cardiac function

8

catheter

thin, flexible, hollow plastic tube that is small enough to be threaded through a vein, artery, or tubular structure

9

coarctation

narrowing of a vessel, especially the aorta

10

deep vein thrombosis (DVT)

blood clot that forms in the deep veins of the body, especially those in the legs or thighs

11

ejection fraction (EJ)

calculation of how much blood a ventricle can eject with one contraction

12

heart failure (HF)

failure of the heart to supply an adequate amount of blood to tissues and organs

13

embolus

mass of undissovled matter (foreign object, air, gas, tissue, thrombus) circulating in blood or lymphatic channels until it becomes lodged in a vessel

14

fibrillation

quivering or spontaneous muscle contractions, especially of the heart, causing ineffectual contractions

15

hemostasis

arrest of bleeding or circulation

16

hyperlipidemia

excessive amounts of lipids (cholesterol, phospholipids, and triglycerides) in the blood

17

hypertension (HTN)

common disorder characterized by elevated blood pressure persistently exceeding 140 mm Hg systolic or 90 mm Hg diastolic

18

primary HTN

HTN in which there is no identifiable cause; also called essential HTN

19

secondary HTN

HTN that results from an underlying, identifiable, commonly correctable cause

20

hypertensive heart disease

any heart disorder caused by prolonged HTN, including left ventricular hypertrophy, coronary artery disease, cardiac arrhythmias, and heart failure

21

implantable cardioverterdefibrillator (ICD)

implantable battery-powered device that monitors and automatically corrects ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation by sending electrical impulses to the heart

22

infarct

area of tissue that undergoes necrosis following cessation of blood supply

23

ischemia

local and temporary deficiency of blood supply due to circulatory obstruction

24

mitral valve prolapse (MVP)

common and occasionally serous condition in which the leaflets of the mitral valve prolapse into the left atrium during systole causing a characteristic murmur heard on auscultation

25

radioisotope

chemical radioactive material used as a tracer to follow a substance through the body or a structure

26

palpitation

sensation that the heart is not beating normally, possibly including "thumping," "fluttering," "skipped beats," or a pounding feeling in the chest

27

patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)

failure of the ductus arteriosus to close after birth, allowing blood to flow from the aorta into the pulmonary artery

28

perfusion

circulation of blood through tissues or the passage of fluids through vessels of an organ

29

tetralogy of Fallot

congenital anomaly consisting of four elements: (1) pulmonary artery stenosis; (2) interventricular septal defect; (3) transposition of the aorta, so that both ventricles empty into the aorta; (4) right ventricular hypertrophy caused by increased workload of the right ventricle

30

stent

slender or threadlike device used to hold open vessels, tubes, or obstructed arteries