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Flashcards in Chapter 8 Deck (114):
1

aneurysm

localized abnormal dilation of a vessel, usually an artery

2

arrest

condition of being stopped or bringing to a stop

3

cardiac arrest

loss of effective cardia function, which results in cessation of circulation

4

circulatory arrest

cessation of the circulation of blood due to ventricular standstill or fibrillation

5

arrhythmia

inability of the heart to maintain a normal sinus rhythm, possibly including a rapid or slow beat or "skipping" a beat; also called dysrhythmia

6

bruit

soft blowing sound heard on auscultation, possibly due to vibrations associated with the movement of blood, valvular action, or both; also called murmur

7

cardiomyopathy

any disease or weakening of the heart muscle that diminishes cardiac function

8

catheter

thin, flexible, hollow plastic tube that is small enough to be threaded through a vein, artery, or tubular structure

9

coarctation

narrowing of a vessel, especially the aorta

10

deep vein thrombosis (DVT)

blood clot that forms in the deep veins of the body, especially those in the legs or thighs

11

ejection fraction (EJ)

calculation of how much blood a ventricle can eject with one contraction

12

heart failure (HF)

failure of the heart to supply an adequate amount of blood to tissues and organs

13

embolus

mass of undissovled matter (foreign object, air, gas, tissue, thrombus) circulating in blood or lymphatic channels until it becomes lodged in a vessel

14

fibrillation

quivering or spontaneous muscle contractions, especially of the heart, causing ineffectual contractions

15

hemostasis

arrest of bleeding or circulation

16

hyperlipidemia

excessive amounts of lipids (cholesterol, phospholipids, and triglycerides) in the blood

17

hypertension (HTN)

common disorder characterized by elevated blood pressure persistently exceeding 140 mm Hg systolic or 90 mm Hg diastolic

18

primary HTN

HTN in which there is no identifiable cause; also called essential HTN

19

secondary HTN

HTN that results from an underlying, identifiable, commonly correctable cause

20

hypertensive heart disease

any heart disorder caused by prolonged HTN, including left ventricular hypertrophy, coronary artery disease, cardiac arrhythmias, and heart failure

21

implantable cardioverterdefibrillator (ICD)

implantable battery-powered device that monitors and automatically corrects ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation by sending electrical impulses to the heart

22

infarct

area of tissue that undergoes necrosis following cessation of blood supply

23

ischemia

local and temporary deficiency of blood supply due to circulatory obstruction

24

mitral valve prolapse (MVP)

common and occasionally serous condition in which the leaflets of the mitral valve prolapse into the left atrium during systole causing a characteristic murmur heard on auscultation

25

radioisotope

chemical radioactive material used as a tracer to follow a substance through the body or a structure

26

palpitation

sensation that the heart is not beating normally, possibly including "thumping," "fluttering," "skipped beats," or a pounding feeling in the chest

27

patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)

failure of the ductus arteriosus to close after birth, allowing blood to flow from the aorta into the pulmonary artery

28

perfusion

circulation of blood through tissues or the passage of fluids through vessels of an organ

29

tetralogy of Fallot

congenital anomaly consisting of four elements: (1) pulmonary artery stenosis; (2) interventricular septal defect; (3) transposition of the aorta, so that both ventricles empty into the aorta; (4) right ventricular hypertrophy caused by increased workload of the right ventricle

30

stent

slender or threadlike device used to hold open vessels, tubes, or obstructed arteries

31

thrombus

blood clot that obstructs a vessel

32

cardiac catheterization (CC)

passage of a catheter into the heart through a vein or an artery to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the heart

33

electrocardiogram (ECG, EKG)

graphic line recording that shows the spread of electrical excitation to different parts of the heart using small metal electrodes applied to the chest, arms, and legs

34

angina

chest pain

35

incompetent

inability of a valve to close completely

36

vegetations

small masses of inflammatory material found on the leaflets of valves

37

varices

varicose veins of the esophagus

38

diaphoresis

profuse sweating

39

Holter monitor test

24-hour ECG tracing taken with a small, portable recording system

40

echocardiography

noninvasive ultrasound diagnostic test used to visualize internal cardiac structures

41

coronary angiography

radiological examination of the blood vessels of and around the heart

42

nitrates

agents used to treat angina

43

statins

drugs that have powerful lipid-lowering properties

44

diuretics

management of edema associated with heart failure and hypertension

45

cardiac enzyme studies

include troponin T, troponin I, and creatinine kinase

46

scintigraphy

injection and detection of radioactive isotopes to create images and identify function and disease

47

stress test

ECG taken under controlled exercise stress conditions

48

ligation and stripping

tying of a varicose vein and subsequent removal

49

commissurotomy

surgical separation of the leaflets of the mitral valve

50

arterial biopsy

removal of a small segment of an artery for diagnostic purposes

51

catheter ablation

destruction of conductive tissue of the heart to interrupt abnormal conditions

52

angioplasty

procedure that alters a vessel through surgery or dilation

53

PTCA

dilation of an occluded vessel using a balloon catheter

54

CABG

surgery that creates a bypass around a blocked segment of a coronary artery

55

atherectomy

removal of occluding material using a cutting or grinding device

56

venipuncture

incision or puncture of a vein to remove blood or introduce fluids

57

thrombolysis

destruction of a blood clot

58

localized abnormal dilation of a vessel, usually an artery

aneurysm

59

condition of being stopped or bringing to a stop

arrest

60

loss of effective cardia function, which results in cessation of circulation

cardiac arrest

61

cessation of the circulation of blood due to ventricular standstill or fibrillation

circulatory arrest

62

inability of the heart to maintain a normal sinus rhythm, possibly including a rapid or slow beat or "skipping" a beat; also called dysrhythmia

arrhythmia

63

soft blowing sound heard on auscultation, possibly due to vibrations associated with the movement of blood, valvular action, or both; also called murmur

bruit

64

any disease or weakening of the heart muscle that diminishes cardiac function

cardiomyopathy

65

thin, flexible, hollow plastic tube that is small enough to be threaded through a vein, artery, or tubular structure

catheter

66

narrowing of a vessel, especially the aorta

coarctation

67

blood clot that forms in the deep veins of the body, especially those in the legs or thighs

deep vein thrombosis (DVT)

68

calculation of how much blood a ventricle can eject with one contraction

ejection fraction (EJ)

69

failure of the heart to supply an adequate amount of blood to tissues and organs

heart failure (HF)

70

mass of undissovled matter (foreign object, air, gas, tissue, thrombus) circulating in blood or lymphatic channels until it becomes lodged in a vessel

embolus

71

quivering or spontaneous muscle contractions, especially of the heart, causing ineffectual contractions

fibrillation

72

arrest of bleeding or circulation

hemostasis

73

excessive amounts of lipids (cholesterol, phospholipids, and triglycerides) in the blood

hyperlipidemia

74

common disorder characterized by elevated blood pressure persistently exceeding 140 mm Hg systolic or 90 mm Hg diastolic

hypertension (HTN)

75

HTN in which there is no identifiable cause; also called essential HTN

primary HTN

76

HTN that results from an underlying, identifiable, commonly correctable cause

secondary HTN

77

any heart disorder caused by prolonged HTN, including left ventricular hypertrophy, coronary artery disease, cardiac arrhythmias, and heart failure

hypertensive heart disease

78

implantable battery-powered device that monitors and automatically corrects ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation by sending electrical impulses to the heart

implantable cardioverterdefibrillator (ICD)

79

area of tissue that undergoes necrosis following cessation of blood supply

infarct

80

local and temporary deficiency of blood supply due to circulatory obstruction

ischemia

81

common and occasionally serous condition in which the leaflets of the mitral valve prolapse into the left atrium during systole causing a characteristic murmur heard on auscultation

mitral valve prolapse (MVP)

82

chemical radioactive material used as a tracer to follow a substance through the body or a structure

radioisotope

83

sensation that the heart is not beating normally, possibly including "thumping," "fluttering," "skipped beats," or a pounding feeling in the chest

palpitation

84

failure of the ductus arteriosus to close after birth, allowing blood to flow from the aorta into the pulmonary artery

patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)

85

circulation of blood through tissues or the passage of fluids through vessels of an organ

perfusion

86

congenital anomaly consisting of four elements: (1) pulmonary artery stenosis; (2) interventricular septal defect; (3) transposition of the aorta, so that both ventricles empty into the aorta; (4) right ventricular hypertrophy caused by increased workload of the right ventricle

tetralogy of Fallot

87

slender or threadlike device used to hold open vessels, tubes, or obstructed arteries

stent

88

blood clot that obstructs a vessel

thrombus

89

passage of a catheter into the heart through a vein or an artery to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the heart

cardiac catheterization (CC)

90

graphic line recording that shows the spread of electrical excitation to different parts of the heart using small metal electrodes applied to the chest, arms, and legs

electrocardiogram (ECG, EKG)

91

chest pain

angina

92

inability of a valve to close completely

incompetent

93

small masses of inflammatory material found on the leaflets of valves

vegetations

94

varicose veins of the esophagus

varices

95

profuse sweating

diaphoresis

96

24-hour ECG tracing taken with a small, portable recording system

Holter monitor test

97

noninvasive ultrasound diagnostic test used to visualize internal cardiac structures

echocardiography

98

radiological examination of the blood vessels of and around the heart

coronary angiography

99

agents used to treat angina

nitrates

100

drugs that have powerful lipid-lowering properties

statins

101

management of edema associated with heart failure and hypertension

diuretics

102

include troponin T, troponin I, and creatinine kinase

cardiac enzyme studies

103

injection and detection of radioactive isotopes to create images and identify function and disease

scintigraphy

104

ECG taken under controlled exercise stress conditions

stress test

105

tying of a varicose vein and subsequent removal

ligation and stripping

106

surgical separation of the leaflets of the mitral valve

commissurotomy

107

removal of a small segment of an artery for diagnostic purposes

arterial biopsy

108

destruction of conductive tissue of the heart to interrupt abnormal conditions

catheter ablation

109

procedure that alters a vessel through surgery or dilation

angioplasty

110

dilation of an occluded vessel using a balloon catheter

PTCA

111

surgery that creates a bypass around a blocked segment of a coronary artery

CABG

112

removal of occluding material using a cutting or grinding device

atherectomy

113

incision or puncture of a vein to remove blood or introduce fluids

venipuncture

114

destruction of a blood clot

thrombolysis