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Flashcards in Chapter 12 Deck (74):
1

"to study the abnormal is the best way of understanding the normal"

william James

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psychological disorder

deviant, distressful and dysfunctional patters of thought, feelings or behaviors.

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deviant

different

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attention-deficit hyperactivity

also know as ADHD

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attention-deficit hyperactivity is diagnosed by

a psychological disorder marked by appearance by age 7

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ADHD Symptoms

- extreme inattention
- hyperactivity
- impulsivity

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Phillipe Pinel believed madness to be

a sickness of the mind caused by severe stress and inhumane conditions

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medical model

concept of psychological disorders being diagnosed, treated in cured through a hospital

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susto is a fear in

Latin America

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Susto is a condition

marked by severe anxiety, restlessness, and black magic

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biological influences of psychological disorder

evolution
individual genes
brain structure/chemistry

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psychological influences

stress
trauma
learned helplessness
mood-related perceptions/memories

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social-cultural influences

roles
expectations
definitions of normality/disorder

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amok (Malysia)

sudden outburst of violent behavior

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DSM-IV-TR stands for

American Psychiatric Associations Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

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DSM-IV-TR

a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders

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anxiety disorders

psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety.

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generalized anxiety disorder

anxiety disorder- individual is continually tense, apprehensive and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal

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panic disorder

an anxiety disorder- marked by unpredictable minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking or other frightening sensations

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phobias

a person feels irrationally and intensely afraid of a specific object/situation/activity

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obsessive-compulsive disorder

a person is troubled by repetitive thoughts or actions

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post-traumatic stress disorder

a person has lingering memories, nightmares and other symptoms for weeks after a severely threatening, uncontrollable event

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"free-floating"- Sigmund Freud

inability to identify disorder

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social fear

intense dear of being scrutinized, avoid potentially embarrassing social sittuations

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agoraphobia

fear or avoidance of situations in which escape might be difficult or help unavailable when panic strikes

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post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an

anxiety disorder

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PTSD is characterized by

haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety and insomnia

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PTSD lingers for a

month or more after traumatic experience

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post-traumatic growth

positive psychological changes as a result of struggling with extremely challenging circumstances/life crises

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reinforcement

helps maintain our phobias/compulsions sfter they arise

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stimulus generalization ex:

if you were attacked by a dog, you may develop a fear of ALL dogs

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anxiety gene affects

brain levels of serotonin

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serotonin

influences sleep and mood- regulating glutamate

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too much glutamate

the brains alarm center becomes overactive

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post traumatic stress also called

benefit finding

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somatoform disorder is a

psychological disorder

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somatoform disorder causes

the symptoms to take a bodily form without a physical cause

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conversion disorder

a person experiences specific physical symptoms without a physiological basis

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hypochondriasis

person interprets normal physical sensations as symptoms of disease

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dissociative disorders

conscious awareness is separated resulting in a change of memory/identity

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dissociate

become separated

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dissociative identity disorder is a

rare dissociative disorder

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DID was previously known as the

multiple personality disorder

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DID is when a

person exhibits two or more distinct alternating personalitites

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the psychoanlaystic explanation of DID symptoms

is that they are defenses against anxiety generated by unacceptable urges

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the learning perspective of DID symptoms

explains these symptoms as being reinforced by relieving past anxiety

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other did explanations

detachment resulting from horrific experience

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mood disorders are

psychological disorders

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mood disorders are characterized by

emotional extremes

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major depressive disorder

prolonged hopelessness/lethargy

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bipolar disorder

person alternates between depression and overexcited/hyperactive state

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bipolar disorder was previously called

manic-depressive disorder

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major depressive disorder is a

mood disorder

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major depressive disorder results in

two or more weeks of significantly depressed moods:feelings of worthlessness,diminished interest in activities without presence of drug use or medical conditions

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depressed thinking cycle

stressful experiences
negative explanatory style
depressed mood
cognitive/behavioral changes

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schizophrenia

group of severe disorders characterized by delusional/disorganized thinking, disturbed perceptions and inappropriate emotions/actions

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delusions

false beliefs

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delusions often accompany

psychotic disorders

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catatonia

remain motionless for hours and become agitated

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positive symptoms

hallucinations
disorganized/delusional speech
inappropriate behaviors

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negative symptom

tone less voices
expressionless faces
mute/rigid bodies

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personality disorders are

psychological disorders

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personality disorders are characterized by

inflexible/enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning

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antisocial personality disorder is most common among

men

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anitsocial personality disorder

in which the person lacks conscience of wrong doing, even towards friends/family, may be agressive/ruthless or clever con artist.

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warning signs of schizophrenia

- mother with severe/long-lasting schizophrenia
- Weight/oxygen birth complications
- short attention span
- poor muscle coordination
- disruptive/withdrawn behavior
- emotional unpredictability
- poor peer relations/solo play

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Afterimage effect

A type of optical illusion in which an image continues to appear briefly even after exposure even after exposure to the images has ended.

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anorexia nervosa

Eating disorder in which a person diets significantly

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availability heuristic

estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory

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misinformation effect

Incorporating misleading information into ones memory of an event.

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lack of object permanence

Lacking ability to understand that things continue to exist even when you don't see them.

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non-random assignment of research participants

Group is designed because of their desired specific trait.

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optimistic explanatory style

They believe positive events to be a result of themselves and positive things occur in the future they see negative events as not their fault

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proactive interference

the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new informational- what you learn from the past effects what you learn now