Reading Quiz Chapter 4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Reading Quiz Chapter 4 Deck (82):
1

prospagnosia

face blindness

2

facial recognition occurs in the

right hemisphere

3

bottom-up processing

begins with sensory receptors and works up to the brain's integration of sensory information

4

top-up processing

information processed by higher level thinking, when we construct perceptions on our experiences & expectations

5

selective attention

focus of conscious awareness on a particular stimuli

6

perception

organizing, and interpreting sensory information

7

perception allows us to

recognize meaningful objects and events

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sensation

sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment

9

intentional blindness

failing it see visible objects when attention is directed elsewhere

10

change blindness

failing to notice changes in the environment

11

change deafness

unaware of change in speaker

12

pop-out phenomenon

stimuli that draw are attention, often are distinctly different from the rest

13

psychophysics

relationship between physical characteristics including intensity and our psychological experience of them

14

absolute threshold

minimum stimulation needed to detect a stimulus 50% of the time

15

signal detection theory

how and when we detect a faint stimulus amid background noise

16

signal detection theory depends on an individuals

experience, expectations, motivation and alertness

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signal detection theory assumes

there is no single absolute threshold

18

subliminal

below ones absolute threshold for conscious awareness

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priming

unconscious activation of certain association areas

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websters law

the principle that to be perceived different two stimuli must differ by a constant percentage

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difference threshold

minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50 percent of the time

22

sensory adaptation

diminished sensitivity because of a constant stimulation

23

transduction

conversion of one form of energy into another

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transduction in sensation

transforming stimulus energies: sights, sounds, smells into neural impulses our brain can interpret

25

wavelength

distance from peak of light or sound wave to the peak of the next

26

hue

dimension of color that is determined by the wavelength of light

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intensity

amount of energy in light or sound wave which we perceive as brightness or loudness

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great amplitude

bright colors

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small amplitude

dull colors

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short wavelength

high frequency- blue colors

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long wavelenght

short frequency- red colors

32

pupil

adjustable opening, where light enters

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iris

colored portion of eye and controls size of pupil opening

34

lens

changes shape to focus images on retina

35

accommodation

eye lens changes shape to focus near or far objects on the retina

36

rods

retinal receptors detecting black, white, gray necessary for peripheral and twilight vision (when cones don't respond)

37

cones

retinal receptors function in daylight and well lit conditions- detect fine detail and color sensations

38

optic nerve

carries neural impulses from eye to brain

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blind spot

no receptor cells

40

fovea

central focal point in retina surrounding cone cluster

41

feature detectors

respond to specific features of stimulus: shape, angle or movement

42

parallel processing

processing of may aspects of a problem simultaneously

43

Young Helmholts trichromatic theory

(Three color theory) that retina contains three different color receptors, one most sensitive to red, one to green one to blue- which when stimulated produce the perception of any color

44

opponent-process theory

opposing retinal processes enable color vision

45

audition

the sense or act of hearing

46

frequency

the number of complete wavelengths (per second)

47

pitch

tone's experienced highness or lowness; depends on frequency

48

cochela

fluid filled tube inner ear where sound waves trigger neural impulses

49

inner ear

the innermost part of ear

50

place theory

links pitch we hear with the place where the cochlea's membrane is stimulated

51

frequency theory

nerve impulses traveling up auditory nerve matches frequency of a tone, enabling us to sense its pitch

52

conduction hearing loss

hearing loss due to damage to the mechanical system conducting sound waves to cochlea

53

sensorineural hearing loss

hearing loss caused by damage to cochleas receptors cells or to auditory nerves

54

cochlear implant

device converting sounds into electrical signals and stimulating auditory nerve through electrodes threaded into the cochlea

55

conduction hearing loss

hearing loss due to damage to the mechanical system conducting sound waves to cochlea

56

sensorineural hearing loss

hearing loss caused by damage to cochleas receptors cells or to auditory nerves

57

cochlear implant

device converting sounds into electrical signals and stimulating auditory nerve through electrodes threaded into the cochlea

58

gate-control theory

that the spinal cord contains a neurological gate blocking pain signals or allows them to pass on to the briain

59

vestibular sense

monitors body's and head position and movement

60

nocieptors

sensory receptors that detect hurtful temperatures, pressure or chemicals

61

figure-ground

organization of the visual field into objects that stand out from their surrondings

62

sensory interaction

that one sense may influence another as when the smell of food influences its taste

63

gestalt

organized whole, emphasized tendency to integrate pieces of info into meaningful wholes

64

figure-ground

organization of the visual field into objects that stand out from their surrondings

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depth perception

ability to see objects in three dimensions although the images that strike retina are two dimensional allow us to judge distance

66

binocular cues

depth cues, retinal disparity that depend on the use of two eyes

67

perceptual constancy

perceiving objects as unchanging (consistent shapes,sizes,lightness and color) even as illumination and retinal images change

68

monocular cues

depth cues, such as interposition and linear perspective, available to either eye alone

69

phi phenomenon

illusion of movement created when two or more adjacent lights blink on and off in quick succession

70

perceptual set

mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another

71

color constancy

perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color, even if changing illumination alters the wavelengths reflected by the object

72

perceptual adaptation

ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field

73

perceptual set

mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another

74

biological influences

sensory analysis, unlearned visual phenomena, critical period for sensory development

75

psychological influence

selective attention, learned schemas, Gestalt principles, context effects, perceptual set

76

soical-cultural influences

cultural assumptions and expectations

77

paranormal phenomena (PSI)

telepathy, clairvoyance, precognition

78

precognition

predicting the future

79

clairvoyance

perceiving remote events (friend's house is on fire)

80

telepathy

mind to mind communication

81

parapsychology

study of paranormal phenomena

82

extrasensory perception

controversial claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input: includes telepathy, clairvoyance and precognition