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Flashcards in Chapter 13 Deck (112):
1

biomedical therapy

a prescribed medication or medical procedure that acts directly on the patient's nervous system

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psychotherapy

a trained therapist uses psychological techniques to assist someone seeking to overcome dificultiies or achieve personal growth

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eclectic approach

using a bled of therapies

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psychotherapy integration

combines a selection of assorted techniques into a single coherent system

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psychoanalysis was a therapeutic technique performed by

Sigmund Frued

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psychoanalysis believes

free associations, resistances, dreams and transference, and therapists interpretations will release previously repressed feeling allowing patient to gain self-insight

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resistance

occurs in psychoanalysis- blocking from consciousness of anxiety laden material

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intrepret

occurs in psychoanalysis- the analysts noting of supposed dream meanings/resistance/other behaviors to promote insight

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latent learning

learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it

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dream analysis

suggesting a dreams meaning

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humanistic therapists focus on

- the present/future more than the past
- conscious thoughts
- taking immediate responsibility for feelings/actions
-promoting growth instead of curing illness

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carl rogers created

client-centered therapy

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client centered therapy

humanistic therapy- therapist uses techniques such as active listening with a genuine, accepting, empathic environment to facilitate clients' growth

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active listening

echoic, restating, and seeking clarification of what the person expresses and acknowledging expressed feelings- non-verbally/verbally

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non-directive therapy

the therapist listens without judging/interpreting and seeks to refrain from direction client towards certain insights

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unconditional positive regard

a caring, accepting, non-judmental attitude in which Carl Rogers believed would help clients to develop self-awareness and self-acceptance

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behavior therapy

therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors

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three hints:

-paraphrase
- invite clarification
- reflect feelings

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counter-conditioning

behavior therapy uses classical conditioning to evoke new responses to stimuli that are triggering unwanted behaviors

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exposure therapies & aversive conditioning are

counter-conditioning techniques

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exposure therapies are the most

widely used type of behavior therapies

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exposure therapies

treat anxiety by exposing people in through both imagination or actuality to the things they fear and avoid

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systematic desensitization

exposure therapy- associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli

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systematic desensitization is commonly used when treating

phobias

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progressive relaxation

relaxing one muscle group after another, then imagine an anxiety aroused situation and raising your finger when feeling tension. You would return to a relaxed state, the scene is repeatedly paired with relaxation until you feel no trace of anxiety

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virtual reality exposure therapy

anxiety treatment- progressively exposes people to stimulations of their greatest fears

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aversive conditioning

a type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state with an unwanted behavior

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aversive conditioning example

associating feelings of nausea with the unwanted behavior of drinking alcohol

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aversive conditioning seeks to

condition an aversion to something the person should avoid

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behavior modification

reinforcing desired behaviors, withholding reinforcement or enacting punishment for undesired behaviors

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token economy

operant conditioning procedure- people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting desired behavior and cln later exchenge tokens for various privileges/treats

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behavior modification critic views:

- will individuals become dependent on extrinsic rewards
- is it ethically right for one human to control another humans behavior

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cognitive therapy

therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking/acting

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cognitive therapy is based on the assumption that

thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reaction

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stress inoculation therapy

teaching people how to restructure their thinking in stressful situations

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cognitive-behavioral therapy

to alter how individuals both think and act

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cognitivie behavior therapy changes

self-defeating thinking while changing behavior

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in family therapy the family is treated as a

system

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family therapy

views and individuals unwanted behaviors as influenced by or directed at other family members

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psychodynamic therapy the assumed problem is

unconscious forces & childhood expereinces

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client-centered therapy assumed problem is

barriers to self understanding and acceptance

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behavior therapy assumed problem is

maladaptive behaviors

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cognitive therapy assumed problem is

negative, self-defeating thinking

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family therapy assumed problem is

stressful relationships

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psycho-dynamic therapy treats through

analysis/interpretation

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client-centered therapy treats through

active listening/unconditional positive regard

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behavior therapy treats through

- counterconditioning
- aversive conditioning
- desensitization
- operant conditioning
- exposure

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cognitive therapy treats through

reveal and reverse self-blame

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family

- understanding family social system
- exploring roles
- improving communication

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client perceptions

- enter therapy in crisis
- clients may need to believe therapy was worth the effort
- clients generally speak kindly to therapists

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regression toward the mean

tendency for extreme or unusual scores to fall back toward their average

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meta-analysis

procedure for statistically combining the result of varying research studies

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randomized clinical trials

researchers randomly assign people on a wait list to therapy or no therapy

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placebo effect

the power of belief in treatment

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unsupported therapies to avoid:

- energy therapies
- recovered-memory therapies
- rebirthing therapies
- facilitated communication
- crisis debriefing

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evidence-based practice

clinical decision making that integrates the best: - available research with
- clinical expertise
- patient characteristics/preferences

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EMDR

eye movement desensitization and reprocessing

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SAD

seasonal affective disorder

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seasonal affective disorder is

the seasonal blahs of winter constitute a form of depression

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the three elements shared by all forms of psychotherapy are:

- hope for demoralized people
- a new perspective on oneself and the world
- an empathic/trusting/caring relationship

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hope for demoralized people

any therapy offers the expectation that with commitment form therapy seeker things will and can get better

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a new perspective

offers a plausible explanation of symptoms and alternative way of looking at themselves/responding to the world

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empathic/caring/trusting relationship lead to an emotional bond and a

therapeutic alliance

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biomedical therapy

prescribed medications/medical procedures

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biomedical therapy works directly on patients

nervous system

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pscyopharmacology is the study of

effects of drugs on mind and behavior

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antipsychotic drugs are used to treat

schizophrenia and other thought disorders

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double-blind procedure

neither staff nor patients know which is the drug and which is the placebo

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long-term us of antipsychotic drugs may result in

tardive dyskinesia

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tardive dyskinesia

involuntary movements of
- facial muscles
- tongue
- limbs

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atypical antipsychotics target

both dopamine & serotonin receptors

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antipsychotic drugs target

dopamine

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antipsychotic drugs dampen responsiveness to

irrelevant stimuli

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antianxiety drugs are used to

control anxiety/agitiation

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antianxiety drugs depress

central nervous system activity

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antianxiety drugs are often used in cobination with

psychological therapy

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standard drug treatment of anxiety disorders is

antidepressants

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antidepressants increase availability of

norepinephrine/serotonin and neurotransmitters that elevate arousal

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Prozac/Zoloft/Paxil are called

selective- serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (they slow the synaptic vacuuming of serotonin)

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neruogenesis

the birth of new brain cells

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the simple salt lithium can be an effective mood stabilizer for those suffering from

bipolar disorder

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depakote has been effective in treating

epilepsy and episodes associated with bipolar disorder

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ECT

Electroconvulsive therapy

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electroconvulsive therapy is a

biomedical therapy

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electroconvulsive therapy is used for

severely depressed patients

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ECT causes a brief

electric current to be sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient

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the effects of psychosurgery are

irreversible

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psychosurgery

removes or destroys brain tissue

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lobotomy procedures were used to

calm uncontrollably emotional/violent patients

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lobotomy procedure cut

nerves connecting the frontal lobe to the emotion controlling centers of the inner brain

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lobotomys often resulted in a

permanently lethargic, immature, uncreative person

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rTMS

repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation

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rTMS

application or repeated pulses of magnetic energy to the brain

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rTMS is used to

stimulate/suppress brain activity

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biomedical therapies assume

mind and body are a unit

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human beings are

an integrated bipolarpsychosocial system

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reilence

the personal strength that helps individuals cope with stress and recover from adversity/trauma

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psychiatrists are

physicians who may prescribe medications

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psychiatrists often work in

private practice

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clinical psychologists have their

PHD

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some clinical psychologists work in

institutions/agenecies though others work in private practice

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counselors specialize

in abuse/relationships

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clinical/psychiatric social workers offer

psychotherapy toindiviudals with everyday personal/family problems

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Irving Kirsch suggested antidepressants should only be prescribed to

severely depressed individuals

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the results of psychotherapy are

irreversible

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serial-position effect

our tendency to recall best the first and last items in a list

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functional fixedness

tendency to think of things only in functions

108

operational definition

a statement of procedures used to define research variables

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double-blind research

where both research participants and staff are ignorant about whether research participants have received a treatment or a placebo

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operant conditioning

a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher

111

myelin sheath

a layer of fatty tissues that encases fibers and neurons in the brain.

112

overjustification

when external rewards diminish intrinsic motivations