Chapter 6 Unit Test Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6 Unit Test Deck (74):
1

CS (Controlled Stimulus)

What is added to uncontrolled stimulus

2

CR (Controlled Response)

Final response; follows controlled stimulus (reaction; often uncontrollable)

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US (Uncontrolled Stimulus)

First thing that causes a response

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UR (Uncontrolled Response)

Response to the first stimulus (reaction; often uncontrollable)

5

Neutral Stimulus

Irrelevant until paired with unconditioned stimulus.

6

Example of Neutral Stimulus

When tone is sounded without food irrelevant; but with food(us) it becomes a conditioned stimulus.

7

Habituation

Used to stimulus; natural habitat

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Associative learning

Pairing stimuli together

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Example of associative learning

Cold weather paired with a jacket

10

Classical conditioning

Associating two things together.
Does not include rewards/punishments

11

Operant Conditioning

"Operator"; rewards/punishment

12

Behaviorism

Behavior

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Behaviorism was discovered by

B.F. Skinner

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Acquisition

Permanent change in behavior.
Learning that is remembered an improved.

15

Higher-order conditioning

Two or more conditioned stimulus'

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Extinction

Conditioned response disappears

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Example of extinction

stimulus with out representation of learned response

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spontaneous recovery

when extincted response is randomly recovered after a long period of time

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Generalization

Grouping two similar things together.

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Example of generalization

Afraid of pets because you were attacked by a neighbors dog.

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Discrimination

Telling a difference between similar things

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Example discrimination

Telling a difference between a bird and bee even though they both fly.

23

Who introduced behaviorism?

John B. Watson

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Observational Learning

Watching/ copying another.

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Fear is a

conditioned response

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Pain is a

unconditioned response

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shaping is used in ______ conditioning

operant

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Law of effect:

Rewarded behavior is likely to recur

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salient

The amount your brain may process or its importance

30

pro-social behavior

benefits others not your self

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antin-social behavior

harming others for your own benefit

32

Receiving a parking ticket is a

positive punishment

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intrinsic motivation

perform behavior effectively for ones own sake

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positive punishment

take away behavior

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positive punishment adds

behavior

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Positive punishment example

spanking, yelling.

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negative punishment

take away behavior

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Negative punishment removes

behavior

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example of negative punishment

Removing a childs phone

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negative reinforcement

strengthens behavior

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negative reinforcement example

puts on seat belt due to a beep

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positive reinforcement

strengthens behavior

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positive reinforcement

adds positive behavior

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Positive reinforcement example

paying someone for their work

45

mirror neurons are also

frontal lobe neurons

46

positive

adminsitering

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negative

taking away

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extrinsic motivation

desire to perform behavior for desired promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment.

49

mirror neurons

they fire when performing certain actions or observing others

50

modeling

observing and imitating a specific behavior.

51

insight

sudden realization of the solution to a problem,

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cognitive map

mental representation of one's environment

53

fixed- ratio

reinforce behavior after a set number or responses

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example of fixed-ratio

buy 10 coffees get a free 1

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variable-ratio

unpredictable number or responses

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variable-ratio example

gambling

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fixed-interval

every so often; reinforce the first response after a fixed time period

58

fixed-interval example

checking for the mail

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variable-interval

reinforce the first response after a VARYING time interval

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B.F. Skinner developed

operant conditioning

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The skinner box

operant chamber/ used for animal to learn certain associations through operant conditioning.

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primary reinforcers

basic need/unlearned

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conditioned reinforcers

gain power through primary/ linked with desire

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conditioned reinforcer example

association/ linking light with receiving food

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Thorndike

created law of effectJ

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Ivan Pavlov discovered

classical conditioning

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Ivan Pavlov also

first time ever defined learning through the experiment involving dog's saliva

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John Watson

Proved that fear was a conditioned response

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John Watson used

classical conditioning

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Albert bandura

bobo doll experiment

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Albert bandura significance

showed influence of modeling through observational learning

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John Garcia

Discovered taste aversion in animals/humans

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John Garcia significance

rats only tasted water once and were continuously ill/ elaborated on classical conditioning

74

Biofeedback

is machinery/software used to evaluate and control bodies effects due to behavior