Chapter 4 Unit Test Review! Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Unit Test Review! Deck (95):
1

Absolute Threshold

minimum level of stimulation for detection 50 percent of the time

2

accomodation

when lens changes shape for focus

3

audition

sense of hearing

4

change blindness

failing to notice changes in environment

5

cochlea

fluid in ear assisting in releasing neural impulses

6

cochlea implant

device converting sound; sensorineural hearing loss

7

cones

retinal receptors focus on color, daylight and fine detail

8

conduction hearing loss

damage to middle ear

9

binocular cues

depth cues; two eyes

10

depth perception

ability to see objects in 3 dimensions

11

difference threshold

minimum stimulation to detect differences; 50 percent of the time

12

bottom-up processing

recognizing things in parts

13

Blind Spot

no receptors; inability to see

14

sensation

when we sense occurrences through receptors

15

pereception

our ability to process, organize and interpret sensory information

16

psychophysics

study of stimulus' characters vs. how we perceive

17

stimulus

thing or event spiking reaction

18

middle ear

concentrates vibrations of eardrums contains: hammer, anvil and stirrup

19

subliminal

below individuals threshold of conscious awareness

20

top-down processing

construct perceptions on our experience and expectations

21

selective attention

focusing of conscious awareness on one particular stimulus

22

cocktail party effect

ability to only tend to one voice among many

23

inattentional blindness

failing to see objects when attention is directed elsewhere

24

choice blindness

choosing a face and then believing you choice the image that was actually rejected

25

pop-out phenomenon

stimuli that demand attention, often don't fit in

26

psychophysics

study between stimuli characteristics and intensity on our experience of them

27

signal detection theory

prediciting how and when we detect a faint signal amid noise. Assuming there is no absolute threshold

28

signal detection theory depends on:

experience, expectations, motivation and alertness

29

Weber's law

to be perceived as different two stimuli must differ by a constant percentage

30

sensory adaptation

diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation

31

transduction

conversion of one form of energy into another

32

wavelength

distance from the peak of one light or sound wave to the next

33

hue

dimension of color determined by lights wavelength

34

intensity

amount of energy in light or sound wave

35

pupil

adjustable opening, where light enters the eye

36

iris

controls size of pupil, colored portion of eye

37

lens

transparent behind pupil changes shape to focus retina

38

amplitude

height of wavelengths/sound wave

39

vestibular sense

WHOLE body movement and position

40

kinesthesis

position and movement of INDIVIDUAL body parts

41

retina

layers of neurons begin processing visual information

42

accommodation

eye's lens changes shape to focus on near or odd objects

43

rods

detect vision in dim light, when cones don't respond

44

optic nerve

nerve carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain

45

fovea

central focus point, around cones cluster

46

feature detector

nerve cells responding to different specific features: edges, lines, angles. and movements

47

supercell clusters

respond to complex patterns of information gathered from feature detectors

48

parallel processing

processing of many parts of a problem simultaneously

49

Young-Helmholtz trichromatic theory

three types of color receptors (Processing Theory)

50

color receptors for Young Helhmholtz trichromatic theory includes:

red, green and blue

51

color-deficient vision

people who suffer form red-green deficiency

52

opponent-process theory

we analyze terms in three sets of opposing colors

53

opponent-process theory combinations

red-green
yellow-blue
white-black

54

pitch

tone's experienced highness or lowness; depending on frequency

55

frequency

number of complete wavelengths passing point given a certain time

56

inner ear

intermost part of ear contains: cochlea, semicircular canals and vestibular sacs

57

incoming vibrations in the middle ear

cause the cochleas membrane (oval window) to to vibrate

58

auditory cortex

found in temporal lobe; processing what you hear

59

place theory

that we hear different sounds depending on where the cochleas membrane is stimulated

60

high frequencies produces (Place Theory)

large variations inner ear beginning of cochlea membrane

61

low frequencies produce (Place Theory)

low frequencies at the end of the cochlea membrane

62

Place theory explains how we

hear high pitched sounds

63

frequency theory

the rate of neural impulses traveling up auditory nerve matches tones frequency, enabling pitch

64

Frequency theory explains how

we hear low pitched sounds

65

volley principle

alternating when neural impulses are sent

66

sensorineural hearing loss

hearing loss caused by damage to receptor cells/auditory nerves

67

gate-control theory

spinal chord contains a gate blocking pain signals, opened by small nerve fibers, closed by large fibers or information from the brain

68

rubber hand illusion

researcher simultaneously touches volunteers real and fake hands, volunteer feels as though the fake hand is her own

69

sensory interaction

one sense may influence anotther

70

gestalt

organized as a whole, how psychologists emphasizes humans tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes

71

figure-ground

organization of visual field into objects...figures that stand out from the ground

72

proximity

grouping nearby figures together

73

similarity

we group similar figures together, columns of similar shapes

74

continuity

smooth continuous patterns

75

connectedness

uniform and linked

76

closure

fill in gaps to create a complete/whole object

77

retinal disparity

compares images from both eyes between two images

78

monocular cues

depth cues for either eye alone

79

relative height

percieving objects higher in our field of vison as farther away

80

relative size

if we assume to objects are similar in size most people perceive the one that casts the smaller retinal image as farther away

81

interposition

if one object partially blocks another we perceive it as closer

82

linear perspective

parallel lines/railroad tracks converge with distance

83

light and shadow

dimmer objects appear farther away

84

relative motion

object beyond fixation point appear to move backwards- those farther away the father they seem to move

85

phi phenomenon

illusion of movement when two or more adjacent lights blink on and off in succession

86

perceptual constancy

perceiving objects as unchanging even as other conditions including retinal change

87

color constancy

perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color even if illumination alters wavelengths reflected by the object

88

perceptual adaptation

in vision the ability to adjust to an artificial or displaced visual field

89

perceptual set

mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another

90

esp (extrasensory perception)

includes telepathy, clairvoyance and precognition

91

parapsychology

study of paranormal phenomena including esp and psychokinesis

92

telepathy

mind to mind communication

93

clairvoyance

perceiving remote events

94

precognition

perceiving future events (death, outcome)

95

Order of eye structure

cornea, iris, pupil lens, retina