Chapter 3 Flashcards Preview

AP Psychology > Chapter 3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 3 Deck (77):
1

Phrenology

Theory linking mental ability to bumps on skull

2

A dendrite

is an extension of a neuron

3

Basic building block of nervous system

neuron

4

Message travels through a neuron in the

axon

5

myelin sheath

fatty layer covers axon speeding up neural impulses

6

neural impulse

brief electrical charge traveling down an axon carrying message

7

synaptic gap

space in between neurons

8

neurotransmitters

carry chemical messages

9

Re-uptake

Reabsorbs excess neurotransmitters

10

Ach purpose is

muscle movement

11

Endorphins

are natural neurotransmitters in the brain

12

Antogonists

block neurotransmitter activity

13

Agonists

mimic neurotransmitters

14

Nervous systems

control all systems

15

Peripheral nervous systems

neurons linking brain and spinal cord to bodies sensory receptors, glands and muscles.

16

Central nervous system

brain and spinal chord

17

nerves

sensory and motor axons

18

somatic system

controls skeletal muscles

19

autonomic nervous system (automatically)

regulates glands, muscles and internal organs

20

Sympathetic

Prepares for action (fight or flight) part of autonomic nervous system

21

Parasympathetic

Calms body part of autonomic nervous system

22

reflexes are

automatic responses to stimuli

23

endocrine system

controls bodies chemical communications

24

endocrine system secretes

hormones

25

pituitary gland

releases hormones and regulates growth (puberty)

26

lesion

destroys brain tissue

27

split brain procedures

corpus callosum is cut

28

EEG

involves electrical sweeping of brain activity

29

CT Scan

only uses x-rays

30

PET Scans

measure brain activity using glucose

31

MRI

produces magnetic fields to produce image

32

FMRI

Uses blood flow to study brain activity

33

Brain Stem

controls basic survival functions- oldest part of brain- evolution

34

medulla

controls heartbeat and breathing- base of brain stem

35

Pons

controls movement- bulge on brain stem

36

reticular formation

controls information- inside brain stem

37

thalamus

receives info from all senses excluding smell

38

cerebellum

controls balance, rear of brain stem (ballet)

39

hippocampus

controls memory-limbic system (college days)

40

limbic system

located between brain-stem, and cerebral hemisphere

41

limbic system includes:

hippocampus, amygdala, hypothalamus

42

Amygdala

controls agression and fear (Amy in pitch perfect)

43

Hypothalamus

controls hunger, thirst, body temperature, pituary glands, pleasure hypo (HYGIENE)

44

Cerebral Cortex

Bodies ultimate control system- thin layer of inter connected neural cells

45

glial cells

replenish, protect, support, neurals (glide toothbrush)

46

temporal lobes

auditory info from opposite fields

47

occipital lobes

eyes; visual field

48

frontal lobes

muscles movements, speaking, judgement

49

parietal lobes

receives sensory input for touch and body position

50

Aphasia

Impairment of language. Damage to
- Weirnickes or
- Brocas
(Left hemisphere)

51

Action Potential

Neural impulse traveling down an axon

52

Who first described dual processing

Signing Freud

53

Facial recognition occurs in

Right hemisphere

54

Behavioral geneticists

Study of genetic limits and environmental influences

55

Broca's area

Controls language and expression
(Frontal lobe)

56

Adrenal glands

Arousal in times of stress located above kidneys

57

Cognitive neuroscience

Study of brain activity linked with cognition

58

Fraternal twins

Develop from two separate fertilized eggs

59

Genome

Genetic Instructions

60

Heritability

Genes attributed to individuals and their differences

61

Identical twins

Develop from one fertilized egg

62

Inter neurons communicate with

Sensory inputs and motor outputs

63

Neurogenesis

Creates new neurons

64

Plasticity

Brains ability to change after damage

65

Synapse

Junction between sending and receiving neuron

66

Weirnickes area

Involves language comprehension and expression (left hemisphere)

67

Dopamine

Influences movement, learning, attention as emotion

68

Serotonin.

Affects mood, hunger, sleep and arousal

69

Norepinephrine

Controls alertness and arousal

70

Gamma-aminobutyric acid

Major inhibitory neurotransmitter

71

Glutamate

Excitatory neurotransmitter involves memory

72

Too little serotonin

Can cause depression

73

Too lite norepinephrine

Can depress mood

74

Too little gamma-aminobutyric acid

Causes seizures, tremors, insomnia

75

Too much glutamate

Migraines, seizures due to an overstimulated brain

76

Ach with Alzheimer's

Neurons deteriorate

77

Too much dopamine

Tremors, decreased mobility and schizophrenia