Chapter 8 Part 1 Reading Quiz Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 8 Part 1 Reading Quiz Deck (86):
1

motivation

a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior.

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Instinct theory was replaced by

the evolutionary perspective

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evolutionary perspective focuses on

genetically predisposed behaviors

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Drive-reduction theory focuses on

inner pushes and external pulls interact

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Arousal theory focuses on

finding the right level of stimulation

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Hierarchy of needs was created by

Abraham Maslow

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Hierarchy of needs explains

how some of our needs take priority over others

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when people criticized themselves

self-abasement instinct

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when people boasted

self-assertion iinstinct

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instinct

behavior which shows pattern through out a species and is innate

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homeostasis

maintenance of a steady interal state

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drive-reduction theory

idea of a physiological need creating an aroused tension stat that motivates an organism to satisfy the need

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incentives

positive or negation environmental stimulus that motivates behavior

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physiological needs

satisfy hunger & thirst

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safety needs

need for the world to feel organized/predictable and that you are safe

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belongingness/love needs

need to loved, accepted, and to avoid separation/loneliness

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esteem needs

self esteem
achievement
independence
competence
respect from others

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self-actualization needs

need to live up to our fullest/unique potential

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self-transcendence needs

need to find meaning/identity beyond the self

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glucose

sugar circulates in the blood and provides a source of energy for body tissues

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when glucose levels are low

we feel hunger

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ghrelin

a hunger-arousing hormone secreted by an empty stomach

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obestatin

sends out a fullness signal that suppresses hunger

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leptin

a protein which is secreted by fat cells and acts to diminish the rewarding pleasure of food

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set point

an individuals weight thermostat

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when the body falls below the set point

there is an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight

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basal metabolic rate

the body's resting rate of energy expenditure

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neophobia

dislike of unfamiliar things

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Anorexia nerovsa

individual diets significantly yet still feels fat

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individuals with anorexia nervosa are

15% underweight

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when anorexia girls

starve/diet

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individuals with bulimia nervosa

purge/vomit

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binge-eating disorder

significantly binge eat followed by remorse but do not fast,purge or exercise excessively

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social cultural influences on eating behavior

- culturally learned taste preferences
- responses to cultural preference for appearance

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biological influences on eating behavior

- appetite hormones
- stomach pangs
- weight set/set point
- attraction sweet/salty tastes
- adaptive wariness to novel foods
- hypothalamic centers monitoring appetite

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heritability

genetic influences on individual differences

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sexual response cycle

four stages of sexual responding

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four stages in sexual response cycle

-excitement
- plateau
-orgasm
-resolution

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refractory period

a resting period after orgasm

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men may not have an other orgasm for up to

a day

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estrogen

sex hormones secreted in greater amounts by females

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in nonhuman mammal estrogen peaks during

ovulation- promoting sexual receptivity

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testosterone

more in males which stimulates growth of sex organs and sex characteristics

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biological influences of sexual motivation

- sexual maturity
- sex hormones- testosterone
- sexual orientation

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psychological influences of sexual motivation

- exposure to stimulating conditions
- sexual fantasies

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socialcultural influences of sexual motivation

- family/society values
- religious/personal values
- cultural expectations
- media

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sexual orientation

gay or straight

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asexual

having never felt sexually attracted to anyone

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fraternal birth order effect

the more older brothers the more likely the child is homosexual

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ostracism

social exclusion

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Cannon-Bard theory

Theory that emotion arousing stimuli trigger physiological responses and the subjective experience of emotion

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James-Lange Theory

Theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of out physiological responses to emotion arousing stimuli

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Two-factor theory

Schachter-Singer theory that to experience emotion one must be physically aroused and cognitively label the arousal

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emotion responses involved

a whole organism

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emotion is illustrated by

physiological arousal, expressive behaviors and conscious experience

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James-Lange Theory

experience of emotion follows our physiological response

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Cannon-Bard Theory

Emotion arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers our physiological response and experience of emotion

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Two-factor theory is also called

The Schachter-Singer Theory

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Two- Factor theory proposes

to experience emotion we must be physically aroused and cognitively label the arousal

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autonomic nervous system

mobilizes your body for action and calms following crisis

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sympathetic divsion

directs your adrenal glands to release epinephrine and norepinephrine

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epiniphrine is the same as

adrenaline

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norepinephrine is the same as

noradrenaline

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polygraphs are frequently used

machines used to detect lies

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polygrpah

measure several of the physiological responses accompanying emotion

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arousal fuels emotion while

cognition channels it

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spill-over effect

arousal response effects our next response by (spilling over)

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empathy

you identify with others and imagine what it must be like to walk in their shoes

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emotional display rules

expressing more emotion to fellow group members than outsiders

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biological influences of emotion

-physiological arousal
- evolutionary adaptiveness
- brain pathways
- spillover effect

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psychological influences of emotion

- cognitive labeling
- gender differences

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social-cultural influences

- expressiveness
- presence of others
- cultural expectations

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facial feedback

effect of facial expressions on experienced emotions; as when a facial expression of anger or happiness intesifies feelings of anger or happiness

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critical period

time shortly after birth; effects the development of baby birds because they are imprinting- forming attachments with the first things they come in contact with

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Fluid intelligence

ability to reason speedily and abstractedly- decreases during later adulthood

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James-Lange

we experience physiological response (body language) before realizing emotion (fear)- often main motivation for fear

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unconditioned stimulus (classical conditioning)

original cause of reaction/response

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unconditioned stimulus example

oysters; which in turn caused them to be sick (unconditioned response)

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conditioned stimulus

what is paired with unconditioned stimulus to create same response

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conditioned stimulus

ex: someone who eats oysters and becomes sick the following time they smell oysters and they would get a similar reaction because of their prior association.

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unconditioned/conditioned stimuli generally

cause us to form associations between stimuli

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refractory period in neural firing

time after neural firing where action potential can not occur- helps our neurons to return to their resting potential

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action potential

a neural impulse/ which may transfer information

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sound localization

where we identify the localization of a certain sound; directs our attention towards different noise making stimuli

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spontaneous recovery

sudden experience of a previously extinguished response; old habits may reoccur after relapsing

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Anterograde Amnesia

inability to create new memories after an incident; prominent in elderly/ amnesia victims and those involved in accidents which impacted their brain.