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Flashcards in Chapter 9 Deck (107):
1

Developmental Psychology Studies

How individuals develop:
- Cognitively
- Physically
- Socially

2

Nature Vs. Nurture

How genetics influence our experiences and development

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Zygote

Fertilized egg

4

Less than half zygotes survive

the first two weeks

5

Following cell division the zygote becomes an

embryo

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9 weeks after conception the embryo becomes a

fetus

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Placenta has

Formed at the zygotes outer cells and attached to the uterine wall

8

Placenta is responsible

Transfers nutrients and oxygen from the mother to the fetus; and screen potentially harmful substances

9

Teratogens

chemicals/viruses which may cause harm to prenatal development

10

fetal alcohol syndrome

physical/cognitive abnormalities caused by pregnant mother's heavy drinking

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habituation

Decrease in infants response with repetition of same stimulus

12

Habituation results in infants interest to

fade resulting in them looking away

13

Infants focus first on

the face not the body

14

Human brains are

immature at birth

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Association areas are the

last cortical areas to develop

16

Association areas:

thinking, memory, and language

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maturation

growth process enabling orderly changes in behavior

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maturation is uninfluenced

by experience

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cognition

mental activities associated with: thinking, knowing, remembering and communicating

20

back-to-sleep position

Placing babies on their backs to sleep to avoid a smothering crib death

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genes play a major role in

motor development

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infantile amnesia

memories prior to age 3 were not remembered

23

Learning may be present even at age

3 months

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schema

A concept/mental mold interprets information

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Assimilation

Interpreingt new experiences into existing schemas

26

Accomodation

Adapting our current understandings/schemas to incorporate new information

27

sensorimotor stage

babies take in the world through senses and actions- (Piaget)

28

object permanence

awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived

29

preoperational stage

Child learns language but does not understand mental logic operations- Piaget

30

Conservation

Principle that properties such as mass, volume and number remain despite object form changing- Piaget

31

egocentrism

child's difficult to view something the same as another's perception- piaget

32

theory of mind

infer other's mental states: feelings, perceptions and thoughts they may predict

33

concrete operational stage occurs in ages

Around 6 to 11

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Concrete operational stage allows

individuals to grasp conservation and to think logically regarding events and mental operations- Piaget

35

formal operational stage

systematical reasoning; if this then that- abstract concepts- Piaget

36

Formal operational stage typically beings at

age 12

37

Autism symptoms

deficient, communication, social interaction and understanding of others' states of mind

38

stranger anxiety

fear of strangers displayed by infants

39

stranger anxiety is displayed at

8 months

40

attachment

emotional tie often with caregiver

41

critical period occurs in

animals

42

critical period

time after birth where stimuli occur to result in proper devlopment

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imprinting

some animals process of forming attachments during a critical period

44

temperament

emotional reactivity/intensity

45

basic trust

sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy- Erikson

46

authoritarian parenting

impose strict rules and demanding obedience

47

self-concept

understanding/evaluation of who we as individuals are

48

self-concept is achieved at age

12

49

Permissive parenting

make few demands, use little punishment and submit to childrens' desires

50

Authoritative

Exert control by setting/enforcing rules, expalin reason for rules and encourage open discussion to allow exceptions

51

family self

feeling that what shames a child shames a family and vice versa

52

gender

biological/social characteristics which define male or female

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agression

physical/verbal behavior intended to hurt someone

54

when a y chromosome is paired with an x chromosome

the baby is a boy

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two x chromosomes result in

a baby girl

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females have

2 x chromosomes

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makes have

y chromosomes and 1 x chromosome

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testosterone

males excess amount stimulates the growth of sex organs in the fetus and development during puberty

59

role

expected behaviors for those who occupy a certain social position

60

gender roles

expectations for how men and women should behave

61

gender identity

our sense of being male or female

62

gender typed

acquisition of a more masculine/feminine role

63

social learning theory

we learn social behavior by observing/imitating and through punishment/reward

64

adolescence

transition period from childhood to adulthood- puberty to independence

65

puberty

sexual maturation; individual is able to reproduce

66

primary sex characteristics include

genitalia, pvaries, testes- sexual reproduction organs

67

secondary sex characteristics

non-reproductive characteristics include: breasts, hips and body har

68

menarche

first menstrual period

69

preconventional morality

focuses on self interest

70

preconventional morality occurs

before age 9

71

conventional morality

upholding laws/social rules because they are there

72

postconventional moraltiy

actions are correct based on ethical principles

73

identity

sense of self by testing various roles- Erikson

74

social identity

understanding who we are by identifying our membership in a group- Erikson

75

intimacy

ability to form loving relationships primary developmental task during late adolescence and early adulthood- Erikson

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emerging adulthood

bridge gape between adolescent dependence and full independence/responsible adulthood

77

menopause

natural cessation of menstruation/biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines

78

With Alzheimers disease

Memory deteriorates followed by reasoning

79

cross-sectional study

people of different ages are compared

80

longitudinal study

the same people are restudied/retested over a long period of time

81

crystallized intelligence

accumulate knowledge/verabal skills- increases with age

82

fluid intelligence

ability to reason quickly and abstractly- declines with age

83

social clock

culturally preferred time for life events to occur- example when you should retire or get married

84

generativity

productive/supportive of future generations

85

social clock

culturally preferred time for life events to occur- example when you should bear children or get married

86

generativity

productive/supportive of future generations

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embryo

developing human embryo

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Basic trust is formed during __________ and depends on interaction/response to ____________

Infancy by experiences with responsive caregivers

89

Social Learning Theory States:

We learn sepcial behavior by observing and imitating and by being punished or rewarded

90

Strange Situation Experiment was designed by

Mary Ainsworth

91

What happened in the strange situation experiment

Involved artificial monkeys designed as wirey or clozy. To see whihc was more soothing/preferable to a real monkey; when their real mother was not around

92

From the Strange Situation

Ainsworth concluded sensetive/unsensitive parents alter their child's attachment

93

Responsive mothers infants demonstrate

secure attachment

94

Unresponsive Carefree mothers infants demonstrate

insecure attachment

95

Secure attachment

Infants are upset when caregiver leaves and happy when they return; show that they have a long-term relationship

96

Diana Baumrind experimented on

self esteem as a result of parenting styles

97

self- esteem, self-reliance. social competance are the highest when raised with

authoriative parents

98

permissive parenting often results in

immaturity/agressive

99

authoritarian parenting often results in

lower self-esteem poor social skills

100

Erik Erikson known for 2 basics of adulthood:

intimacy/generativity- psychological development

101

Carol Gilligan experimented with

gender differences

102

male answer syndrome

reciting a hazard answer instead of admitting they dont know

103

Harry Harlow

Artificial monkey experiment to portray attachment results

104

Lawrence Kohlberg

Development of moral reasoning/moral ladder

105

Lorenz Konrad

Explored imprinting; experimented by being the first thing ducklings saw and they followed him and the same when an object appeared first. Revealing imprinting occurs only in animals and is a process of forming attachments

106

Jean Piaget

Children develop through stages/moral judgments are built in cognitive development

107

Lev Vygotsky

Sociocultural theory of how children learn based on society