Chapter 7 Reading Quiz! Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 7 Reading Quiz! Deck (83):
1

Memory

Continual learning over time through storage and retrieval

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encoding

Processing information into memory system- extracting meaning.

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Storage

retaining stored encoded information

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retrieval

getting information out of memory storage

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Three stages of forming memories:

sensory memory, short-term memory, long-term memory

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Unconscious processing:

external event- sensory input, sensory memory- encoding, working/short term memory- encoding- retrieving, long term memory

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working memory

understanding of short term memory- focuses on conscious processing- and retrieved long term memory information

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Working memory focuses:

conscious active processing of incoming auditory and visual spatial information and retrieved info from long-term memory

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Parallel processing

Doing many things at once to understand a problem.

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Retention

to remember

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Automatic process

unconscious encoding of incidental information

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Effortful Processing

Encoding requiring attention and conscious effort

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Rehearsal

Conscious repetition of information

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Spacing effect

Rehearsal distributed over time

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Acoustic encoding

Encoding of sound

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Testing effect

Testing is a powerful means of improving learning not just testing it

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Point to remember 2:

Spaced study and self-assessment beat cramming

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Serial position effect

tendency to recall last and first items in a list best

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Visual encoding

Encoding of pictures

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Semantic encoding

Encoding of meaning; especially meaning of words

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Chunking

Organizing familiar items into manageable units; often automatic

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Echoic memory

Sound/word recalled seconds after sensory stimuli

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Ltp

Long-term potentiation

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Long-term potentiation

Increase in synapses firing potential after brief rapid stimulation

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self-reference effect:

Relating things to ourselves more easily

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imagery

mental pictures

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mnemonics

memory aids

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Rosy retrospection

Negative emotions recalled from bad events fade more rapidly than positive emotion recalled from good events.

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Iconic memory

Memory of visual stimuli; lasts several seconds

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Flashbulb memory

clear memory of an emotionally significant event

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Amnesia

Loss of memory

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Implicit memory or

Non-declarative/ procedural memory

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Implicit memory

retention independent of conscious recollection

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Explicit memory

memory of experiences/facts and individual can consciously declare

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Explicit memory or

declarative memory

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Hippocampus located in

limbic system

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Hippocampus

helps process explicit memories for storage

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cerebellum stores

implicit memories created by classical conditioning

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recall

Measure of memory in which the person must retireive information learned earlier

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relearning

Measures of memory assessing the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time

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priming

activation unconsciously of an individuals associations

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recognition

memory by identifying what was already learned

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proactive interference

when something learned prior disrupts recall of new information

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retroactive interference

Disruptive effect of new information on recall of old information

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mood-congruent memory

recalling experiences consistent with good or bad moods

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Repression casues

conscious anxiety aroused thought, feelings and memories to banish

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misinformation effect

incorporating misleading info into a memory

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source amnesia

Attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about or imagined.

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algorithm

step-by-step procedures guaranteeing a solution

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heuristic

Thinking strategy often error producing

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insight

solution to a problem

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creativity

ability to produce novel ideas

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confirmation bias

searching for info that suppotrs our ideas

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fixation

inability to see problem from a different perspective

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mental set

approach problem, in a particular way

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functional fixedness

tendency to think of things in terms of usual functions

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representative heuristic

judge likelihood of things in terms or particular prototypes

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availability heuristic

estimating likelihood of events based on their availability in memory

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overconfidence

overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs/judgements

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belief perseverance

clinging to initial conceptions after basis they were formed on were discredited

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langauage

how we communicate meaning

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phoneme

smallest distinctive sound unit in language

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morpheme

smallest unit with meaning

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morpheme expample

a words prefix

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grammar

system of rules enabling communication

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semanatics

study of meaning

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syntax

rules for combining swords in to grammatically correct sentences

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babbling stage

various unrelated sounds produced by infants

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one-word stage

single words spoken by 1 to 2 year olds

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two word stage

speech development involing two-words statements

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telegraphic speech

children's speech of mostly nouns and verbs

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linguistic determinism

language determines how we think

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Hypothesis of Linguistic determinism presented by

Benjamin Lee Whorf

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Sensory memory

Brief recording of sensory information into memory system

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Short- Term memory

Briefly holds few items before information is forgotten

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Short-term memory example

7 digits of a phone number while dialing

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Long- term memory

Relatively limitless storehouse of memory system.

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Long-term memory includes

Knowledge, skills and experiences

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Automatic processing examples:

Space, time, Frequency and well-known word meanings

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Rehearsals purpose:

Maintain information consciously/ encode information for storage

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Spacing effect allows for:

more long-term retention

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Acoustic encoding often includes:

the sound of words

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De ja vu

Cues from current situations may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience