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Flashcards in Chapter 14 Deck (107):
1

herman Melville remarked

"we cannot live for ourselves alone"

2

social psychology

scientific study of how we think about, influence and relate to one another

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attribution theory

individuals explain someone's behavior by crediting either the situation or personality

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fundamental attribution error

tendency for observers to underestimate the situation and to over estimate the impact of personality

5

disposition

personality

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point to remember

our attributions to individuals' dispositions or to their situations should be made carefully

7

attitudes

feelings, often influenced by our beliefs

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attitudes often predispose our reactions to

objects, people and events

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peripheral route persuasion

attitude change path in which people are influenced by incidental cues

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peripheral route persuasion

a speakers attractiveness

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central route persuasion

attitude change path in which interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts

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attitude follows

behavior

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foot-in-the-door phenomenon

tendency for people who agree to a small action to comply later with a larger one

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moral actions strengthen

moral convictions

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role

set of expectations/normalcies about a social position

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roles define how an individual should

behave

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cognitive dissonance theory

theory that we act to reduce the discomfort we feel when two of our thoughts are inconsistent.

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dissonance

discomfort

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cognitions

thoughts

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cruel acts shape the

self

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chameleon effect created by

tanya chartrand and john bargh

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mood linkage

sharing up and down moods

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chameleon effect refers to

individuals mimickjing others expression, postures and voice tones

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empathy is a part of

automatic mimicry

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conformity

adjusting ones behavior/thinking to coincide with a group standard

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conformity increases when:

- individual is made to feel incompetent/insecure
- group consists of 3 +
- the group is unanimous
- individual admires groups status/attractiveness
- no prior commitment made
- others in group observe one's behavior
- culture strongly encourages respect for social standards

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normative social influence

results from a persons desire to gain approval/disapproval

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information social influence

results from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about rerality

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obedience is highest when:

- orders are directed from an authority figure
- authority figure is supported by a prestigious institution
- victim was depersonalized in distance
- no role models demonstrating defiance

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social facillitation

stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others

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when being observed we perform well-learned tasks

more quickly and accurately

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when observed we perform unmastered tasks

less quickly and accurately

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when completing tough tasks in the presence of others

people perform less well

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social loafing

people in a group exert less effort when pooling their effort toward a common goal- individually not accountable

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deindiviudation

loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situation that foster arousal and anonymity

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deindividuation causes individuals to be less

self-conscious and less restrained when in a group situation

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group polarization

people within a group discuss and idea that most either favor or oppose

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when talking about racial issues in a group they may become

more predjudice

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group think

mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives

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groupthink may be fed by

conformity
self-justification
group polarization
over confidence

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group think may include

- examining few alternatives
- selective gathering of information
- pressure to conform withing group
- withhold criticism
- collective rationalization

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group think is prevented when

- leader welcomes various opinions
- invites experts critiques of developing plans
- assigns people to identify possible problems

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culture

behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values and traditions shared by a group pf people and transmitted from one generation to the next

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norms

rules for accepted and expected behaviors

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personal space

portable buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies

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norms prescribe

proper behavior

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personal control

power of the individual

48

social control

power of the situation

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minority influence

power of one or two individuals to sway majorities

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predjudice

prejudgement- unjustifiable and usually negative toward a group & its members

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prejudice usually involves:

stereotyped beliefs
negative feelings
predisposition to discriminatory action

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as overt prejudice wanes

subtle prejudice lingers

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modern prejudice

rejecting immigrant minorities as job applicants for supposedly nonracial reasons

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blame-the-victim dynamic

poverty breed are a higher crime rate, someone can then use the higher crime rate to justify continuing the discrimination

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social identities

associate ourselves with certain group sand contrast ourselves with others

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ingroup

us

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outgroup

them

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ingroup bias

favoring of ones own group

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scapegoat theory

prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone else the blame

60

other-race effect

tendency to recall faces of ones own race more accurately than faces of other races

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other-race effect also known as

cross-race effect, own-race bias

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other-race effect emerges during

infancy 3-9months

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agression

physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy

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just-world phenomenon

tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get

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y chromosomes increase

agression

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high testosterone correlates with

irritability
assertiveness
impulsiveness
lower tolerance for frustration

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aggression-prone people are more likely to

drink and become violent when intoxicated

68

frustration-aggression principle

principle that frustration-blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal creates anger which can generate aggression

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aversive stimilu may evoke

hostility

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aversive stimuli include:

physical pain
personal insults
foul odors
hot temperatures
cigarette smoke

71

rape myth

idea that some women invite or enjoy rape and get swept away

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social scripts

mental tapes for how to act-provided by our culture

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catharsis hypothesis

idea that we feel better if we blow off steam

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aggressive behavior biological influences

- genetic influences
- biochemical influences- testosterone/alcohol
- neural influences/severe head injury

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aggressive behavior psychological influences

- dominating behaviors
- believing you're drunk
- frustration
- aggressive role models
- rewards for aggressive behavior

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dominating behaviors

boost testosterone levels in blood

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aggressive social-cultural influences

- deindividuation
- challenging environmental factors
- parental models of aggression
- minimal father involvement
- being rejected from a group
- exposure to violent media

78

mere exposure effect

phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them

79

proximity

geographic nearness

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we perceive attractive people to be

healthier
happier
more sensitive
more successful
more socially skilled

81

attractive people are less likely to be viewed as

compassionate or honest

82

women are more attracted to

healthy looking men who appear dominant, mature and affluent

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men are more attracted to women when women have

a youthful appearance

84

an averaged face is

attractive

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reward theory of attraction

we will like those whose behavior is rewarding to us and will continue relationships that offer more rewards than costs

86

two-factor theory of emotion

emotions have two ingredients- physical arousal and cognitive appraisal and that arousal from any source can enhance one emotion or another dependent on how we interpret/label the arousal

87

passionate love

aroused state of intense positive absorption in another

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passionate love normally occurs

in the beginning of a love relationship

89

adrenaline makes the

heart grow fonder

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companionate love

deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom are lives are intertwined

91

equity

a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it

92

self-disclosure

revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others

93

altruism

unselfish regard for the welfare of others

94

only help in situation if we

notice the incident
interpret it as an emergency
assume responsibilities for helping

95

diffusion of responsibility

single individuals were more likely to help when they believed they were the only ones aware; less helped when they figured others were around

96

bystander effect

any particular bystander was less likely to give aid with other bystanders present

97

social exchange theory

social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs

98

reciprocity norm

expectation that we will help not hurt those who have helped them

99

social-responsibility norm

expectation that people will help those dependent upon them

100

conflict

a perceived incompatibility of goals, actions or ideas

101

social traps

situation in which conflicting parties by each rationally pursuing their self-interest become caught in mutually destructive behavior

102

mirror-image perceptions

mutual views often held by conflicting people, as when each side sees itself as ethical and peaceful and vies the other side as evil and agressive

103

self-fulfilling prophecy

a belief that leads to its own fufillment

104

mutual betterment may be agreed upon through

regulations, communication and awareness of our responsibilities toward the community, nation and whole of humanity

105

superordinate goals

shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation

106

GRIT stands for

Graduated & Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension Reduction

107

GRIT

a strategy designed to decrease international tensions