Chapter 15 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 15 Deck (85):
1

What is a drug?

Any chemical substance that produces a biologic response in a living system

2

Drug are

Chemical substances that are NOT required for normal maintenance of body function.
Aid in the diagnosis, treatment, or prevention of disease

3

After a drug has been administered it is called

Medication

4

Pharmacology

The science concerned with the origin, nature, effects and uses of drugs.
The study of drug actions and drug interactions with living organisms.

5

Classified system of drug names

Chemical Name
Generic Name
Trade Name

6

Chemical Name


Identifies the actual chemical structure of the drug
Often complex
Not important to the technologist

7

Generic name

Name given to the drug before its official approval for use
One generic name for each drug
Simpler name
Derived from chemical name
Never capitalized
Usually best known by

8

Brand Name

Name given to a drug manufactured by a specific company
Short & easy to remember
Name may or may not reflect chemical structure of the drug

9


Trademark is

Brand name, trade name or proprietary name

10

Chemical sample

2-diphenylmethoxy-N,N-dimethyle-thylamine

11

Generic Sample

Diphenhydramine

12

Brand sample

Benadryl

13

Classification -Drug Action

Function
Drug families
Similar chemical actions are group
Analgesics
Antiinflammatories
Not totally reliable
One drug may have several different physiologic effects on the body

14

Drug Forms

The manner in which the chemical agent is transported into the human body
Single drug available in different forms to facilitate delivery and action under a variety of conditions

15

Drug form samples

Tablet
Capsule
Inhalant
Suppository
Solution
Suspension
Transdermal patches

16

4 Routs of drug

Oral
Topical
Sublingual
Parenteral

17


Oral rout

Most common
Patient must be conscious
Absorption time is longer

18

Topical rout

Directly onto skin
Absorbed into bloodstream
Transdermal patch

19


Sublingual rout

Under the tongue and not swallowed
Rapid absorption for immediate onset

20


Parenteral rout

Administered by injection or by a route other than the GI tract
Common routes

21

Relieve pain without causing a loss of consciousness

Analgesics

22

2 groups of Analgesics

Nonnarcotic (nonopioids)
Narcotic (opioids)

23

Nonnarcotic (nonopioids)

Mild to moderate pain
Acetaminophen (Tylenol), Motrin, Advil

24

Narcotic (opioids)

Moderate to severe pain
morphine, oxycodone, demerol

25

Act on the CNS to produce a loss of sensation

Anesthetics

26

2 types of Anesthetics

General anesthetics
Local anesthetics

27

General anesthetics

Produce muscle relaxation and loss of consciousness – surgical procedures
propofol (Diprivan)

28

Local anesthetics

Block nerve conduction from an area of the body to the CNS

29

Antianxiety

Used in the treatment of anxiety
Act on the CNS to calm or relax the anxious patient
diazepam (Valium); lorazepam (Ativan)

30

Anticoagulants

Inhibit clotting of the blood or increase the coagulation time
Use primarily to prevent or treat thromboembolic disorders
Heparin (IV)
Coumadin (Oral)

31


Interventional procedures

Monitor closely for hemorrhage

32

Used to treat Type 2 diabetes
metformin (Glucophage)
IVP exam

Antidiabetic

33

Prevents and treats nausea & vomiting
Before onset of symptoms
prochlorperazine (Compazine)
ondansetromn (Zofran)

Antiemetic

34

Treat allergic disorders; upper respiratory tract infections & the common cold

Antihistamine

35

2 groups of Antihistamine

Sedating antihistamines
Nonsedating antihistamines

36

Sedating antihistamines

diphenhydramine (Benadryl)

37

Nonsedating antihistamines

loratadine (Claritin)

38

Increase the amount of urine excreted by the kidneys
CHF patients
furosemide (Lasix)

Diuretic

39

Causes blood vessels to constrict
Increasing heart action & BP
norephinephrine (Levophed)

Vasoconstrictor

40

Causes blood vessels to dilate
nitroglycerin

Vasodilator

41

Contrast Media

30% of all imaging examinations involve the use of contrast media in order to visualize a body part or system

42

Contrast media is classified as

Drug

43

Contrast media is absorbed

Into the systemic circulation and may produce a physiologic response

44

3 Routes of administration

IV or intravenous
Oral
Rectal

45

IV contrast administered in a large dose over several minutes

Bolus (use w/CT scan

46

IV contrast administered over an extended period of time

Infusion

47

When an anatomical area is filled or outlined by a Positive contrast media, the area will appear white on the image
All positive contrast media except barium contain iodine

Radiopaque

48

Negative contrast media making the area appear darker on the image
Air or gas

Radiolucent

49

What is the most common type of contrast used to image the GI system

Barium

50

Barium

Does not dissolve; remains suspended in solution
Barium(56) and iodine(53) both contain high atomic numbers

51

Chemical structure is

different for ionic & nonionic contrast
Differs in the number of particles in solution; not the number of iodine compounds

52

The iodine provides

the contrast or density difference between an organ and its surrounding tissue

53

Weight of the ion
Can cause side effects for patients

Osmolality

54

Ionic contrast have a higher

osmolality (hyperosmotic to body fluids)

55

Nonionic contrast has

an osmolality closer to human plasma
Less likely to cause reactions

56

Adverse reactions

Range from mild to severe

57

Vasovagal response

Reaction to the procedure and not the contrast agent; high anxiety

58

Most reactions to IV contrast media occur within

the first five (5) minutes after administration
A delayed reaction is also possible

59

Five rights of drug administration
(Golden rules of drug administration)

Right drug
Right amount
Right patient
Right time
Right route

60

Equipment for Venipuncture

Needle
Tourniquet
Alcohol wipes or antiseptic solution
Tape or tegaderm
Gauze
Contrast
Syringe
Bandaid

61

Plastic syringe

Tip – needle attaches
Barrel – body of syringe
Plunger –part that fits into the barrel
Vary in size: 1 – 50 mL size capacity

62

Luer-Lok syringes

Locking device on the tip to hold needle firmly in place

63

Needle

Stainless steel

64

3 Components of needle

Hub
Cannula or shaft
Bevel

65

Part that attaches to the syringe

Hub

66

Length of metal part

Cannula or shaft

67

Sharp slanted tip of the needle

Bevel

68

Gauge

(viscosity of fluid determine size)
Thickness or diameter of the needle
14 to 28

69

Length (area for injection/condition of patient determine)

Measurement in inches of the shaft portion
½ to 4 ½ inches

70

The smaller the diameter of the shaft of the needle

the larger the gauge number will be.
25 gauge needle has a very small diameter
18 gauge needle has a large diameter

71

Which gauge is often used to draw a drug or solution into a syringe but seldom used to inject into the patient

18 gauge

72

Package labeled 20g/1 ½ indicates that

the needle is 20 gauge and 1 ½ inches long (length)

73

Bevel Varies from

long to short

74

subcutaneous & intramuscular injections

Long bevel

75

intravenous injections

Short bevel

76

Bevel always

up

77

Sealed glass container designed to hold a single dose
Intended for one use

Ampule Container

78

Small glass bottle with a sealed rubber cap and metal band; plastic cap
Different sizes; multiple doses within one

Vial container

79

Opening an Ambule

Hold upright and flick top with a finger until all the drug is in the bottom of the ambule
Gauze is wrapped around the indented neck and the top is snapped off
Discard any unused contrast

80

Opening A Vial

Remove plastic cap from top of vial
Determine amount to be withdrawn and draw up same amount of air into syringe
Attach needle to syringe

81

Insert needle into vial and inject air

Fluid will replace air in syringe
Place tip of needle above level of fluid before injection of air to prevent air bubbles in the solution

82

Vein Selection

Carefully assess area to determine best location for venipuncture

83

Things to consider for Vein Selection

Type of contrast
Length of procedure
Bolus or infusion
Age and physical condition of patient
Medical history

84

Never use .........for Vein Selection

the anterior wrist
Extreme pain and damage may result to radial nerve

85

Venipuncture Procedure

Retract and anchor vein distally with finger.
Hold needle @ a 20 to 30 degree angle with bevel up for proper insertion (hold the vein tie w/fingers)
Look for blood return in flashback chamber and advance catheter into vein (separate the needle ??
Secure catheter and release tourniquet
Connect syringe or tubing to catheter