Flashcards in Patient Care Review Deck (141):
The best means of preventing the spread of microorganisms continues to be:
Hand hygiene or hand washing
Entry of pathogenic microorganisms into a new host can be by:
Ingestion / Inhalation / injection
What type of medication promotes the excretion of urine?
Directions given by a person while in a healthy state concerning wishes at time of death:
What is the term used for cases of medical negligence and switches the burden of proof from the patient to the imaging professional?
Res ipsa loquitor
Destruction of microbes by steam under pressure or other means, includes both chemical or physical means:
What type of medication causes constriction of the blood vessels?
What type of medication causes dilatation of the blood vessels?
What is urticaria?
This method of transmission occurs when droplets contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms are placed in the air from a person infected with a droplet-borne infection:
What are the elements needed to transmit an infection?
Reservoir or environment in which the microbe can live & multiply
Portal to exit the reservoir
Means of transmission
Portal of entry into a new host
When a susceptible person actually touches an infected person’s body surface in an area where infectious microbes are present:
The transfer of pathogenic microbes by touching objects that have been contaminated by an infected person
What is a PE?
Occlusion of a pulmonary artery by a thrombus
What is the term for a patient’s claim that he/she has been wronged or has suffered some injury, other than a breach of contract, for which he/she believes cause exist for an action for damages:
Where is a chest tube inserted?
Dependent upon air or fluid to be removed
Placed in the pleural cavity
What is the chest tube attached to?
Water-sealed drainage unit
Contact with infectious secretions that come from the eyes, nose or mouth of a host or disease carrier as the person coughs, sneezes, or talks:
What is orthostatic hypotension
A decrease in diastolic pressure caused by sudden movement from a recumbent to an upright position
What is orthostatic hypotension
A decrease in diastolic pressure caused by sudden movement from a recumbent to an upright position
Droplets can travel for how many feet?
The CDC established a two-tier system for patients with particular diagnoses. The first tier is to be used at all times when any healthcare professional is caring for a patient.
What is the length of time for a surgical scrub?
3 to 5 minutes
Which side of the patient is usually the best side to move a patient onto (strong/weak side)?
How far should one stand from a sterile table?
What is the term for spoken defamation?
What is diabetic ketoacidosis?
Insufficient insulin causes liver to produce more glucose or hyperglycemia; kidneys then excrete glucose with water & electrolytes leading to dehydration and electrolyte imbalance
Insect or animal carriers of disease are called?
What is a pulse oximeter?
It measures the amount of oxygen saturation
Which stage of an infection does the microorganism reproduce and the infection begins?
Infection is transmitted by what type of routes?
Direct or indirect contact
The ___ route of transmission indicates that residue from evaporated droplets of diseased microorganism are suspended in air for long periods of time.
Microorganisms have been eliminated through the use of soap, water, friction and various chemical disinfectants
Any practice that helps reduce the number and spread of microorganisms
Decreases the probability of acquiring an infection
What are some of the clinical manifestations for a patient experiencing a diabetic complication?
Blurred or double vision
Sweet odor to breath
Walking or the ability to walk
Infection Controls: The medically aseptic hand washing procedure should last for ___ ___.
This is considered the minimum amount of time.
Vital signs: A condition in which the blood does not supply enough oxygen to the body, causing a bluish tone to the lips and fingertips:
The ___ membrane thermometer is a small, hand-held device that measures the temperature of the blood vessels in the __ membrane of the ear.
Medical Law: What are types of intentional torts?
Generalized brain function disturbance and are accompanied by changes in LOC:
A symptom of an underlying condition
Infection control: This method of transmission occurs when microbes are spread on evaporated droplets that remain suspended in air or are carried on dust particles in the air and may be inhaled by persons in that room or air space:
Vital signs: Respirations of fewer than 10 breaths/min for an adult may result in ____, apprehension, restlessness and a change in LOC:
Infection control: When diseases require droplet isolation, what are the precautions that must be taken?
Private room or a room with another person infected with same disease
Door may be left open
Mask for any procedure that requires less than 3 feet in proximity to patient
Oxygen administration: What are the different types of oxygen devices used for patients?
Nasal cannula, face masks (nonrebreathing, partial rebreathing, Venturi mask or an aerosol mask
Infection control: When diseases require contact isolation, what are the precautions that must be taken?
Private room or room with another person infected with same disease
Gloves to be worn by healthcare professional before entering patient’s room and removed before leaving
Gown if possibility of touching patient or items in room
Visitors must wash hands before and after entering room
Equipment used in patient’s room must stay in patient’s room
Communication: Concrete evidence
Based on facts that exist
Infection control: When cleaning an area such as an x-ray table, where should the cleaning first begin?
In the least soiled area and then finish in the most soiled area
Medical Law: What is the term for written defamation?
-Based on judgment by an individual
Zone 1 or unrestricted zone
Zone 2 or semi-restricted zone
Zone 3 or restricted zone
Unrestricted – persons may enter in street clothing
Semi-restricted – dressed in scrub attire with hair and shoes covered
Restricted – appropriate scrub attire and mask
Who makes up the surgical team?
Anesthesiologist or nurse anesthetist
Scrub nurse or surgical technician
Microorganisms and their spores have been completely destroyed by means of heat or by a chemical process
Complete removal of microorganisms and their spores
Reduces the probability of acquiring an infection to zero
A slow heart rate of less than 60 beats per minute:
Contaminated objects are referred to as ____.
The blood pressure reading that occurs during the relaxation of the ventricles:
Vital signs: Difficult breathing resulting from insufficient airflow to the lungs:
Medical Law: What is the term for an intended threat or harm without physical contact?
Infection control: If a patient is highly susceptible to becoming infected because of a particular treatment or condition, isolation precautions are also used to protect the patient:
Vital signs: A fast heart rate of more than 100 beats per minute:
The human brain cannot function for longer than __ to __ ______ without an adequate oxygen supply.
4 to 5 minutes
Vital signs: What are the four areas of the body in which temperature is usually measured?
Vital signs: The pulse can be detected most easily in which areas of the body?
How the patient transfer:
How should a wheelchair be placed when the patient needs to be transferred from the wheelchair to the imaging table?
at a 45 degree angle
What is the average pulse rate in an adult in a resting state?
60 to 90 beats/minute
The average oral temperature reading is __F.
98.6 degrees F
Why is standard precautions considered effective?
Based on the assumption that every patient has the potential for having an infectious disease
What is the term for the master speaks for the servant?
What does “deep pocket approach” refer to?
The physician or healthcare facility is responsible for the negligent acts of its employees
What is the average respiration rate for an adult?
15 to 20 breaths/minute
What are some of the uses for central venous catheters?
Long term medication
Frequent blood transfusion
Total parenteral nutrition
What are some of the rules for surgical asepsis
What is the term for physically touching another person without permission even if no injury arises?
The instrument used to measure blood pressure is called a ___.
When diseases require airborne isolation, what are the precautions that must be taken?
Private room with negative air-pressure ventilation
N95 respirator mask
Surgical mask for visitors
Surgical mask for patient when transferred within hospital
Another term for fainting?
A chemical capable of destroying microorganisms or inhibiting their growth
Same as antiseptic
What is the difference between an NG tube and an NE tube?
NG tubes – stomach, duodenum or jejunum
NE tubes – pass into duodenum and small intestines by means of peristalsis
A patient is considered to be hypertensive if the systolic BP is consistently greater than ___ and if the diastolic BP is consistently greater than __.
140 mm Hg
90 mm Hg
What are the five (5) rights to drug administration?
What is the difference between the nonrebreathing and partial rebreathing oxygen mask?
A nonrebreathing mask offers a high percent of oxygen (100%) while a partial rebreathing offers between 60 to 90%.
Partial rebreathing has no valve (breathing a mixture of oxygen and carbon dioxide)
Who can be sued?
What are the stages of grief?
What is the term used for failing to follow the policies involving the use of restraints or unnecessarily confining or restraining a patient without their permission?
When an infection is acquired within the healthcare environment, this is referred to as what type of infection?
When a patient enters the healthcare facility with an infection, this is referred to as what type of infection?
Community acquired infection
What considerations should be given before moving a patient?
Patient’s general condition
Range of motion and weight-bearing ability
Patient’s strength and endurance
Patient’s ability to maintain balance
Patient’s ability to understand what is expected during transfer
Patient’s acceptance of the move
Patient’s medication history
As the body’s temperature increases, the body’s demand for ___ increases.
An infection that is a result of a particular treatment or therapeutic procedure is termed?
What are the stages of infection?
What are the symptoms associated with a mild anaphylactic reaction?
Nasal congestion, periorbital swelling, itching, sneezing and tearing of eyes
Tingling or itching @ injection site
Fullness or tightness of chest, mouth or throat
Feeling of anxiety or nervousness
What does PPE stand for and what does it include?
Personal protective equipment
Gloves, gown, mask and safety glasses
What type of needle is used to access an implanted port?
The blood pressure reading taken during the contraction of the ventricles:
What type of catheter is the Hickman?
Where is the entry and exit locations for the PICC?
Hickman – tunnel type (inserted into the subclavian or internal jugular vein and advanced into the SVC or right atrium)
PICC – peripherally inserted central catheter into patient’s arm and advanced until tips lies in central vein
What is the term used for information concerning a patient that has been leaked to individuals who do not need to know and the information was presented in such a way that the patient was subjected to ridicule, scorn or contempt or was injured in some way as through loss of a job or home?
Which type of oxygen device is considered the most common to deliver low concentrations of oxygen?
What is the LPM range for this type of device?
1 to 4 LPM (greater than 6 tends to dry out nasal passages)
When taking a BP on a patient, one may hear extraneous sounds such as tapping, knocking or swishing. These sounds are known as?
The result of an exaggerated hypersensitivity reaction is termed?
Where is the correct placement for an endotracheal tube?
5 to 7 cm above the tracheal bifurcation (carina)
The body’s pathological reaction to illness, trauma or severe physiologic or emotional stress is known as:
It may be caused by body fluid loss, cardiac failure, decreased blood vessel tone, or obstruction of blood flow to vital body organs.
What type of medical situation is encountered when the patient has an excess amount of insulin in the blood stream?
What symptoms are displayed?
Symptoms include intense hunger, weakness, shaky, sweat excessively, confusion or irritability
What type of medication prevents and treats nausea and vomiting?
What are two other terms used for CVA or cerebral vascular accident?
Stroke or brain attack
What are the symptoms associated with a cerebral vascular accident?
Paralysis on one or both sides
Slurred or no speech
Loss of vision
What are the two most common NG tubes used and what is the difference between these two types?
Levin – single-lumen with holes near the tip
Sump – double-lumen tube with second opening that consists of a blue extension off the proximal end of the tube (remains outside and is called a “pigtail”)
What are the three most commonly used NE tubes and which ones are single or double lumen?
Cantor – single
Harris – single
Miller-Abbott – double
What type of medication inhibits clotting of blood (thrombus formation)? Name one IV and oral type.
IV – Heparin/Lovenox
Oral – Coumadin
What are NG and NE tubes used for?
NG – diagnostic exams, administration of feedings or medications, treat intestinal obstruction and to control bleeding
NE – decompression, diagnosis and treatment purposes
What type of medication acts on the CNS to produce a loss of sensation?
Name one general and local type.
General – diprivan
Local – carbocaine
What type of tube is placed from inside the stomach to the external abdominal wall for the purpose of feeding patients who cannot tolerate the oral intake of food?
The term used for profuse sweating, heavy perspiration is known as?
What four elements are needed to consider the radiographer was negligent?
Duty to the patient by the technologist
Breach of that duty
Relationship between injury and duty
What type of medication relieves pain without causing a loss of consciousness?
What is a type of nonnarcotic?
What is a type of narcotic?
Analgesics – reduce pain, fever and inflammation in tissues
Nonnarcotic – acetaminophen (Tylenol)
Narcotic (intense pain) – morphine, Demerol
Less severe pain – codeine, Percocet, oxycodone
Another type of central venous catheter is called an __ ___.
This type of catheter is used for patients who have long-term illnesses that require frequent intravenous medications or transfusions.
What type of medication is used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus?
Oral hypoglycemic drug (Glucophage – metformin)
What is the term used for failure to use such care as a reasonable prudent person (healthcare worker) would use under like or similar circumstances?
What symptoms might be displayed by the patient if experiencing a possible fainting episode?
Dizziness, sweating, feeling warm or flushed
What type of medication is used to dissolve clots?
Support or encouragement
The catheter from the implanted port is inserted into what vein?
Subclavian or internal jugular vein
What is the normal systolic/diastolic pressure for an adult?
Less than 120 mm Hg and less than 80 mm Hg
What can happen if an endotracheal tube is positioned too high within the trachea?
May cause air to enter the stomach and cause regurgitation with the possibility of aspiration pneumonia developing
What length of time is a mask good for?
What are some conditions that may indicate a patient may need a chest tube?
What is the base of support?
Foundation on which the body rests
What type of stance should be used?
What is the Patient Self-Determination Act (1990)?
Establishes guidelines concerning patients’ wishes when confronted with serious illness
Patient’s desire if an illness cannot be cured or if the illness renders life without quality
What are the three most common postoperative tissue drains?
What is the most frequently used method for sterilization?
Moist heat - autoclave
What is an autoclave?
Steam under pressure
The following drugs may be found on an emergency drug cart.
What is the purpose?
Constricts blood vessels and stimulates the heart
Used in cardiovascular, respiratory and allergic reactions
What is the name of a urinary catheter?
Foley – double lumen tube with a small inflatable balloon
What concerns are there concerning the drainage bag?
Transporting patient with bag
What type of medication treats allergic disorders (acute & chronic)?
If an endotracheal tube is inserted too far, what can happen?
It can enter the right bronchus (due to anatomical position) and cause the left lung to collapse (atelectasis)
What does nitroglycerin do for the patient?
Relaxes the smooth muscle of both arteries and veins, short or long acting
Used to treat sudden onset of angina pain
Long-acting patch to prevent or minimize angina
Body temperature is elevated above normal limits:
Fever or pyrexia
If a microorganism is known to produce a disease, it is called ____ ____ or a _____.
NE are ____ and more ___ than NG tubes.
Are NE tubes used with suction?
What are the signs that a patient may need to be suctioned?
Profuse vomiting in a patient who cannot voluntarily change positions
Audible rattling or gurgling sounds coming from throat
Signs of respiratory distress