liquid connective tissue consisting of cells surrounded by liquid extracellular matrix (blood plasma)
(3) general functions of blood
(2) components of blood
1) blood plasma
2) formed elements (cells & cell fragments)
watery liquid extracellular matrix
Blood Plasma is made up of?
91.5% water, 8.5% solutes (primarily proteins)
What synthesizes most plasma proteins?
Types of Plasma Proteins
(3) components of formed elements of blood
1) red blood cells
2) white blood cells
Red Blood Cells (erythrocytes)
production = ?
contain hemoglobin - oxygen-carrying protein
production = destruction (2 million new RBCs/second)
biconcave disk (increases surface area)
glycolipids in PM responsible for ABO & Rh blood groups
no nucleus or mitochondria
Heme - ring like nonprotein pigment
- 1 in each of 4 chains
Globin - 4 polypeptide chains
Hemoglobin & Iron
iron ion at center of heme ring can combine reversibly with one oxygen molecule
What can bind to hemoglobin?
Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide & Nitric Oxide (NO)
release of nitric oxide from hemoglobin causes?
vasodilation - increase in blood vessel diameter
to improve blood flow & oxygen delivery
RBCs live ___ days
cannot synthesize new components - no nucleus or other organelles
What happens to ruptured blood cells?
Ruptured red blood cells removed from circulation & destroyed by fixed
phagocytic macrophages in spleen and liver
Recycling Process of Blood cells
1) macrophages phagocytize ruptured RBCs (in spleen, liver or red bone marrow)
2) globin & heme portions are split
3) globin is broken down to amino acids - used to make proteins
4) Iron is removed from heme in form of FE(3+) & ends as yellow pigment urobilin in urine or brown pigment stercobilin in feces
White Blood Cells
Types of WBCs
Granular Leukocytes (WBCs)
- types (3)
Agranular Leukocytes (WBCs)
- types (2)
WBCs live for ___ days except for ___ which live?
a few days except lymphocytes which live for months or years
normal protective response to invaders, strenuous
exercise, anesthesia and surgery
abnormally low level of WBCs
Which WBCs are active phagocytes?
Neutrophils and marophages
______________respond most quickly to tissue damage by bacteria
- release lysozymes & strong oxidants & defensins (antibiotic activity)
______________take longer to arrive but arrive in larger numbers and destroy more microbes
Enlarge & differentiate into ___?
leave capillaries and release granules containing heparin,
histamine and serotonin, at sites of inflammation.
- involved in inflammatory reaction & allergies
leave capillaries and enter tissue fluid & release enzymes
phagocytize antigen-antibody complexes
effective against parasitic worms
major soldiers of the immune system
Natural Killer (NK) cells
destroy bacteria & inactivate their toxins