Chapter 19 - Cardiovascular System - Blood Flashcards Preview

KIN 260 > Chapter 19 - Cardiovascular System - Blood > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 19 - Cardiovascular System - Blood Deck (100):
1

Blood 

liquid connective tissue consisting of cells surrounded by liquid extracellular matrix (blood plasma) 

2

(3) general functions of blood

transportation 

regulation 

protection

3

(2) components of blood

1) blood plasma

2) formed elements (cells & cell fragments) 

4

blood plasma 

watery liquid extracellular matrix

 

5

Blood Plasma is made up of?

91.5% water, 8.5% solutes (primarily proteins)

6

What synthesizes most plasma proteins?

Hepatocytes

 

7

Types of Plasma Proteins

Albumins (54%) 

fibrinogen 

antibodies 

globulins (38%) 

 

8

(3) components of formed elements of blood

1) red blood cells

2) white blood cells

3) platelets

9

Red Blood Cells (erythrocytes) 

contain?

production = ?

shape?

consist of? 

lack?

 

contain hemoglobin - oxygen-carrying protein

production = destruction (2 million new RBCs/second)

biconcave disk (increases surface area)

glycolipids in PM responsible for ABO & Rh blood groups

no nucleus or mitochondria 

 

10

Hemoglobin

made of?

Heme - ring like nonprotein pigment 

- 1 in each of 4 chains

Globin - 4 polypeptide chains

11

Hemoglobin & Iron

iron ion at center of heme ring can combine reversibly with one oxygen molecule

12

What can bind to hemoglobin?

Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide & Nitric Oxide (NO) 

 

 

13

release of nitric oxide from hemoglobin causes?

vasodilation - increase in blood vessel diameter 

to improve blood flow & oxygen delivery

14

RBCs live ___ days 

synthesis?

120 days

cannot synthesize new components - no nucleus or other organelles

15

What happens to ruptured blood cells?

Ruptured red blood cells removed from circulation & destroyed by fixed 
phagocytic macrophages in spleen and liver

16

Recycling Process of Blood cells 

1) macrophages phagocytize ruptured RBCs (in spleen, liver or red bone marrow) 

2) globin & heme portions are split

3) globin is broken down to amino acids - used to make proteins

4) Iron is removed from heme in form of FE(3+) & ends as yellow pigment urobilin in urine or brown pigment stercobilin in feces

17

White Blood Cells 

have?

lack?

 

have nuclei 

lack hemoglobin

18

Types of WBCs

1) Granular

2) Agranular

19

Granular Leukocytes (WBCs) 

- types (3) 

neutrophils

eosinophils

basophils

20

Agranular Leukocytes (WBCs) 

- types (2) 

lymphocytes

monocytes

21

WBCs live for ___ days except for ___ which live?

a few days except lymphocytes which live for months or years

22

Leukocytosis

normal protective response to invaders, strenuous 
exercise, anesthesia and surgery

23

Leukopenia

abnormally low level of WBCs

 

24

Which WBCs are active phagocytes?

attracted by?

Neutrophils and marophages 

chemotaxis

25

______________respond most quickly to tissue damage by bacteria

Neutrophils

- release lysozymes & strong oxidants & defensins (antibiotic activity) 

26

______________take longer to arrive but arrive in larger numbers and destroy more microbes 

Enlarge & differentiate into ___?

Monocytes 

Macrophages 

27

Basophils function

leave capillaries and release granules containing heparin
histamine and serotonin, at sites of inflammation.

- involved in inflammatory reaction & allergies 

 

28

Eosinophils function

leave capillaries and enter tissue fluid & release enzymes

phagocytize antigen-antibody complexes

effective against parasitic worms

29

Lymphocytes

types? (3) 

major soldiers of the immune system

B cells

T cells

Natural Killer (NK) cells

30

destroy bacteria & inactivate their toxins

B Cells

31

attack viruses, fungi, transplanted cells, cancer cells and some bacteria

T cells

32

– attack a wide variety of infectious microbes and 
certain tumor cells

Natural Killer (NK) cells

33

Origin of blood cells

pluripotent stem cell

1) myeloid + 2) lymphoid stem cells 

1) RBCs, platelets, granular WBCs & monocytes

2) Agranular WBCs (except monocytes)

34

Platelets - production

myeloid stem cell --> megakaryoblasts --> megakaryocyte --> platelets 

35

Platelets (thrombocytes)

shape?

function?

life span?

fragment of megakaryocyte enclosed by piece of PM

- disc-shaped with many vesicles but no nucleus

promote blood clotting & help stop blood loss from damaged blood vessels 

5-9 days

36

Heart

located in?

mediastinum - region extending from sternum to vertebral column, 1st rib & between lungs

37

Heart

1) apex 

2) base

3) anterior surface

4) inferior surface

5) right border

6) left border

1) tip of left ventricle

2) posterior surface

3) deep to sternum & ribs

4) b/w apex & right border

5) faces right lung

6) pulmonary border - faces left lung

38

Pericardium

- (2) main parts

Membrane surrounding and protecting the heart 

 1) fibrous pericardium

2) serous pericardium 

a) parietal layer

b) visceral layer (epicardium) 

39

Layers of Heart Wall

 

 

Epicardium (visceral layer of serous pericardium)

Myocardium - cardiac muscle

Endocardium - smooth lining 

40

Chambers of the Heart

2 Atria -  recieving chambers

auricles on anterior surface

2 Ventricles - pumping chambers 

41

Sulci

series of grooves of heart surfacce that contain coronary blood vessels & fat

marks boundary between 2 chambers of the heart

42

Coronary sulcus

marks boundary between superior atria & inferior ventricles

43

1) Anterior interventricular sulcus 


2) Posterior interventricular sulcus

1) between left & right ventricle on anterior surface

2) between ventricles on posterior surface

44

Right Atrium 

forms ___ ___

recieves blood from (3) veins

right border

1) superior vena cava

2) inferior vena cava

3) coronary sinus

 

45

Interatrial septum

- prominent feature?

between atria

fossa ovalis - oval depression

46

Blood passes through ______________valve into 
right ventricle from right atrium

 

 

 tricuspid valve (right atrioventricular valve)

47

Right Ventricle

forms?

inside contains?

 

anterior surface of heart

trabeculae carneae - ridges formed by raised bundles of 
cardiac muscle fiber

48

Tricuspid Valve is connected to __ ___ which is connected to __ ___ 

chordae tendinae

papillary muscles 

49

Blood flow:

right atrium --> (tricuspid valve) --> right ventricle ---> ____ --> ___ ___ --> ___ ___ 

from right ventricle through pulmonary valve into pulmonary trunk & then to right & left pulmonary arteries --> lungs

50

Left Atrium 

recieves blood from __ through ___ veins

passes through ___ valve into ____ ___ 

lungs through 4 pulmonary veins 

bicuspid/mitral/left atrioventricular valve into left ventricle

51

Left Ventricle

- thickness?

forms?

blood passes from left ventricle through _ __ ( __ ___ valve) into __ __ 

aortic valve (aortic semilunar valve) --> ascending aorta

some blood flows into coronary arteries, remainder to body

52

 Myocardial thickness 

atria vs ventricles

 

atria walls are thinner - deliver blood under less pressure to ventricles

 

53

Distance, Pressure & Resistance for each:

1) Right ventricle pumps blood to ______________ 

2) Left ventricle pumps blood to ______________ 

Left ventricle works ___ to maintain same rate of blood flow as right ventriclw

1) LUNGS 

Shorter distance, lower pressure, less resistance

2)  all other parts of body

 Longer distance, higher pressure, more resistance

harder 

54

Heart wall also contains fibrous skeleton

Dense connective tissue that forms a structural foundation, point of insertion 
for muscle bundles, and electrical insulator between atria and ventricles 

 

55

Atrioventricular valves (2) 

 

located between an atrium & a ventricle

tricuspid & bicuspid valves

 

56

Atria contracts/ ventricle relaxed

AV valves open, cusps project into ventricle

blood moves from atria (higher pressure) to ventricles (lower pressure) through AV valves 

SL valves closed

 

57

Atria relaxed/ ventricle contracts

AV valves close 

SL valves open 

58

No valves guarding entrance to __?

right atrium from venae cavae

 left atrium from pulmonary veins

59

Systemic Circuit

left side of heart

recieves blood from lungs --> aorta -->

systemic arteries --> systemic arterioles --> systemic capillaries  (gas & nutrient exchange) 

--> systemic venule --> systemic veins --> right atrium

60

Pulmonary Circuit

right side of heaert

recieves blood from systemic circulation 

-> pulmonary trunk -> pulmonary arteries -> pulmonary capillaries -> pulmonary veins -> left atrium 

61

Systemic vs. Pulmonary Circulations

gas exchange in capillaries 

Systemic - unloads O2, picks up CO2

Pulmonary - unloads CO2, picks up O2

62

CORONARY CIRCULATION

myocardium has its own network of blood vessels

ascending aorta → coronary a. (encircle heart) → capillaries → coronary v.

 

63

Coronary arteries that branch from ascending aorta

 

supply oxygenated blood to myocardium

LEFT: 

a) anterior interventricular - ventricles

b) circumflex branches - left ventricle/atrium

RIGHT: 

(small branches to right atrium)

a) posterior interventricular - ventricles

b) marginal - right ventricle

64

Coronary Veins

blood passes through arteries of coronary circulation → capillaries → coronary veins

 

drains into coronary sinus → right atrium 

65

(4) veins carry blood into Coronary Sinus

1) great cardiac vein

2) middle cardiac vein

3) small cardiac vein

4) anterior cardiac vein

 

66

Histology of Cardiac Muscle Tissue

__ and less __ than skeletal muscle fibers

structure?

organelles?

shorter & less circular

branching - stair-step appearance

one central nucleus

mitochondria are larger & more numerous than in skeletal muscle

ends of fibers connected by intercalated discs that contain:

desmosomes - hold fibers together 

gap junctions - allow muscle action potential conduction b/w fibers

67

Autorhythmic Fibers

(2) functions

Specialized cardiac muscle fibers- source of electrical activity causing heart beart

- self-excitable 

repeatedly generate action potentials that trigger heart contractions

 

1) PACEMAKER

2) CARDIAC CONDUCTION SYSTEM 

68

Ausculatation

act of listening to sounds within the body

69

Sound of heartbeat comes primarily from..? caused by?

 blood turbulence caused by closing of heart valves

70

4 heart sounds in each cardiac cycle

– only 2 loud enough to be heard 
 

 

S1: Lubb – AV valves close 
S2: Dupp – SL valves close 

71

5 main types of blood vessels

arteries - (blood away from heart)

arterioles

capillaries 

venules

veins

72

(3) layers in blood vessels

 

Tunica interna

tunica media

tunica externa

73

Tunica Interna 

inner lining in contact with blood

endothelium continuous with endocardial lining of heart

 

74

Tunica Media

muscular & connective tissue layer

 Smooth muscle regulates diameter of lumen 

 

75

Tunica Externa 

elastic & collagen fibers

vaso vasorum - vessels that supply blood to vessel wall

anchors vessels to surrounding tissue

76

Arteries - (3) layers

thick muscular/elastic tunica media 

high compliance (stretch) 

 

77

Elastic Arteries

largest

thin walls

pressure reservoir

help propel blood forward while ventricles relaxed

aka conducting arteries - conduct blood to medium sized arteries

78

Muscular arteries 

medium sized 

Tunica media - more smooth muscle than elastic fibers 

thick walls

adjust rate of blood flow (constrict/dilate) 

aka distributing arteries 

79

Anastomis 

union of branches of 2 or more arteries supplying same body region

80

Arteries of upper limb 

which artery passes between clavicle and 1st rib 

 

subclavian 

81

Subclavin artery → ??

→ axillary →brachial →radial →ulnar

 

82

Which artery is used for:

a) blood pressure

b) pulse

a) brachial

b) radial

83

Arterioles

____ has s precapillary sphincter which monitors blood flow into capillary

 

metarteriole (terminal end) 

play key role in regulating blood flow into capillaries by regulating resistance

84

Capillaries 

function?

smallest blood vessels 

connect arterial outflow & venous return

- exchange bwtween blood & interstitial fluid

- lack tunica media & externa

85

(2) ways for blood to flow from arteriole into venule

1) capillaries 

2) throughfare channel

86

3 types of capillaries

 

continuous 

fenestrated

sinusoids

 

87

continuous capillaries

Endothelial cell membranes from continuous tube

 

- CNS, lungs, skin & muscle tissue

88

Fenestrated capillaries

Have fenestrations or pores

- kidney, villi of smalll intestine, choroid plexuses in brain ventricles, ciliary processes &endocrine glands

89

Sinusoids 

Wider and more winding 
 Unusually large fenestrations

 

90

Portal vein – 

blood passes from capillary network into another 

91

Venules

 Thinner walls than arterial counterparts 
Postcapillary venule – smallest venule 
 Form part of microcirculatory exchange unit with capillaries 
 Muscular venules have thicker walls with 1 or 2 layers of smooth muscle

92

Veins 

contain?

thin walls
thinner tunica interna -

tunica media  - little smooth muscle

tunica externa - thickest layer

CONTAIN VALVES

93

Largest portion of blood at rest is in ?

systemic veins and venules

94

Capillary Exchange

movement of substances between blood & interstitial fluid

95

Substances enter & leave capillaries by (3) mechanisms 

1) diffusion

2) transcytosis

3) bulk flow

 

96

Besides the heart, (2) other mechanisms pump blood from lower body to heart

1) skeletal muscle pump

2) respiratory pump

97

skeletal muscle pump

contraction → compressed vein →milking (pushes blood through proximal valve) & distal valve closes 

muscle relaxation → proximal valve closes → distal valve opens → proximal valve reopens

98

Respiratory pump

based on alternating compression & decompression of veins 

Inhalation → thoracic cavity pressure decreases → abdominal cavity pressure increases →abdominal veins compressed → blood moves to thoracic veins → right atrium 

Exhalation → valves in veins prevent backflow from thoracic to abdominal veins

99

(3) types of sensory receptors that provide input to cardiovascular center

Proprioceptors – monitor movements of joints and muscles to provide input during physical activity 


Baroreceptors – monitor pressure changes and stretch in blood vessel walls 


Chemoreceptors – monitor concentration of various chemicals in the blood 

 

100