Chapter 19 - Cardiovascular System - Blood Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 19 - Cardiovascular System - Blood Deck (100)
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1

Blood 

liquid connective tissue consisting of cells surrounded by liquid extracellular matrix (blood plasma) 

2

(3) general functions of blood

transportation 

regulation 

protection

3

(2) components of blood

1) blood plasma

2) formed elements (cells & cell fragments) 

4

blood plasma 

watery liquid extracellular matrix

 

5

Blood Plasma is made up of?

91.5% water, 8.5% solutes (primarily proteins)

6

What synthesizes most plasma proteins?

Hepatocytes

 

7

Types of Plasma Proteins

Albumins (54%) 

fibrinogen 

antibodies 

globulins (38%) 

 

8

(3) components of formed elements of blood

1) red blood cells

2) white blood cells

3) platelets

9

Red Blood Cells (erythrocytes) 

contain?

production = ?

shape?

consist of? 

lack?

 

contain hemoglobin - oxygen-carrying protein

production = destruction (2 million new RBCs/second)

biconcave disk (increases surface area)

glycolipids in PM responsible for ABO & Rh blood groups

no nucleus or mitochondria 

 

10

Hemoglobin

made of?

Heme - ring like nonprotein pigment 

- 1 in each of 4 chains

Globin - 4 polypeptide chains

11

Hemoglobin & Iron

iron ion at center of heme ring can combine reversibly with one oxygen molecule

12

What can bind to hemoglobin?

Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide & Nitric Oxide (NO) 

 

 

13

release of nitric oxide from hemoglobin causes?

vasodilation - increase in blood vessel diameter 

to improve blood flow & oxygen delivery

14

RBCs live ___ days 

synthesis?

120 days

cannot synthesize new components - no nucleus or other organelles

15

What happens to ruptured blood cells?

Ruptured red blood cells removed from circulation & destroyed by fixed 
phagocytic macrophages in spleen and liver

16

Recycling Process of Blood cells 

1) macrophages phagocytize ruptured RBCs (in spleen, liver or red bone marrow) 

2) globin & heme portions are split

3) globin is broken down to amino acids - used to make proteins

4) Iron is removed from heme in form of FE(3+) & ends as yellow pigment urobilin in urine or brown pigment stercobilin in feces

17

White Blood Cells 

have?

lack?

 

have nuclei 

lack hemoglobin

18

Types of WBCs

1) Granular

2) Agranular

19

Granular Leukocytes (WBCs) 

- types (3) 

neutrophils

eosinophils

basophils

20

Agranular Leukocytes (WBCs) 

- types (2) 

lymphocytes

monocytes

21

WBCs live for ___ days except for ___ which live?

a few days except lymphocytes which live for months or years

22

Leukocytosis

normal protective response to invaders, strenuous 
exercise, anesthesia and surgery

23

Leukopenia

abnormally low level of WBCs

 

24

Which WBCs are active phagocytes?

attracted by?

Neutrophils and marophages 

chemotaxis

25

______________respond most quickly to tissue damage by bacteria

Neutrophils

- release lysozymes & strong oxidants & defensins (antibiotic activity) 

26

______________take longer to arrive but arrive in larger numbers and destroy more microbes 

Enlarge & differentiate into ___?

Monocytes 

Macrophages 

27

Basophils function

leave capillaries and release granules containing heparin
histamine and serotonin, at sites of inflammation.

- involved in inflammatory reaction & allergies 

 

28

Eosinophils function

leave capillaries and enter tissue fluid & release enzymes

phagocytize antigen-antibody complexes

effective against parasitic worms

29

Lymphocytes

types? (3) 

major soldiers of the immune system

B cells

T cells

Natural Killer (NK) cells

30

destroy bacteria & inactivate their toxins

B Cells